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МБУ гимназия № 38


г.о.Тольятти

Единый государственный экзамен

по английскому языку

Раздел «Письмо»

Подготовка учащихся

к написанию личного письма

и сочинения с элементами рассуждения

в формате ЕГЭ

Попова Марина Анатольевна,

учитель английского языка

высшей категории

2013г.

Структура и содержание раздела «Письмо»
Раздел "Письмо" включает два задания: написание личного письма (задание C1) и развернутого письменного высказывания с элементами рассуждения (задание С2). В 2013г., как и в 2012 г., учащимся предлагается один тип письменного высказывания: «Ваше мнение».
1. Подготовка учащихся к написанию личного письма
Требования к написанию личного письма


Задание

Тип задания

Проверяемые умения

Требуемый объем

Время выполнения

С 1

Базовый уровень

Письмо личного

характера

  • Дать развернутое сообщение

  • Запросить информацию

  • Использовать неофициальный стиль

  • Соблюдать формат неофициального письма

100 – 140 слов

20 минут


Письмо личного характера оценивается по следующим критериям (max 6 баллов):


  • организация текста (max 2 балла)

  • содержание (max 2 балла)
  • языковое оформление текста (max 2 балла)


ИТОГО: max 6 баллов
Правила оформления личного письма


  1. Адрес

Адрес пишущего указывается в правом верхнем углу.


  • (полный) Flat 10

12 Gagarin Street

Samara

443299

Russia 

  • (краткий)

Moscow

Russia


  1. Дата

Под адресом ставится дата.


  • April 23, 2013

  • 19 October 2013

  • 07/05/2013




  1. Обращение

Письмо начинается с обращения. После обращения ставится запятая.

  • Dear Ann,

  • Dear David,

  • Dear Uncle Jerry,




  1. Начало письма

В начале письма автор обычно благодарит адресата за ранее полученное письмо

и извиняется, что не писал раньше.


  • Thank you for your letter. It was great to hear from you again.

  • Thanks so much for your last letter. I’m sorry I didn’t have the time to answer sooner.

  • Thanks for your letter. Sorry I haven’t been in touch for a while but I’ve been really busy.

  • Thanks for your recent letter. It was good to hear from you, and I couldn’t wait to tell you all my news in reply.

  • I'll do my best to answer your questions.

  • I’ve got some information and ideas for you.

  • I have a few suggestions that I hope you’ll like.

  • I thought I’d write back straight away with a few suggestions I’ve thought of.




  1. Основная часть письма

В данной части нужно ответить на все вопросы задания и задать необходимые вопросы другу по переписке. Вопросы должны относиться к данной конкретной фразе письма!

We also have a dress code at school. But I think wearing school uniforms is not a good idea. Many teachers think if students wear uniforms they will behave better and follow rules, but I disagree. Everybody has his own character and students want to show their individuality. Nevertheless, it is not bad to have uniforms for special days like a graduation ceremony at the end of school.

It's great that you are doing a project about Russia. What issues did you include in your project? Where did you get information from? Did your classmates find your project interesting?
В основной части письма необходимо использовать слова-связки:


  • Anyway,

  • By the way,

  • Actually,

  • Most of all…

  • Why don’t you…?

  • If I were you, I’d...

  • Have you thought about...?

  • It would be a good idea to…

  • What you should do is...

  • The best advice I can give you is...

  • Another good idea is to…


6. Конец письма

В конце письма обычно объясняется причина, почему автор заканчивает письмо и упоминается о дальнейших контактах.


  • Well, that’s all for now. Write back and let me know how you get on.

  • That’s all my news. I’d better go and do some work now.

  • Anyway, I hope this helps. If you want to know anything else, just drop me a line.

  • If you follow my advice, I’m sure you’ll feel much better soon. Anyway, let me know how it goes.

  • I hope these suggestions are helpful.

  • Hope to hear from you soon.

  • Write back soon.

  • Looking forward to seeing you soon.




  1. Завершающая фраза и подпись

Завершающая фраза письма зависит от степени близости автора и адресата, после нее всегда ставится запятая. Далее идет подпись автора. Личные письма подписываются без указаний фамилий.



  • Lots of love,

Mary

  • Take care,

Alex

  • Best wishes,

Sasha

  • All the best,

Irene
Тренировочное задание
C1 You have 20 minutes to do this task.
You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Jane who writes:
We're doing a project at school called "How can we make our planet a safer place?" Could you give me some information about your country? What are the most serious ecological problems in your country? Could you tell me what measures young people in your country take to save the environment?

I'm very happy because I'm going to visit Italy in August.
Write a letter to Jane.

In your letter

- answer her questions

- ask 3 questions about her trip to Italy.

Write 100 – 140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.
Текст личного письма


Samara

Russia
6 June 2013
Dear Jane,

Thanks for your letter. I was very happy to get it. Sorry I haven’t been in touch for a while but I’ve been really busy.

 

I'll do my best to answer your questions. There are lots of ecological problems in Russia: too much traffic, factories polluting the air and too much rubbish. We need to take steps before it's too late. Young people in our city often organize a ‘Cleanup’ campaign. Firstly, they clean our town’s streets and parks because they are full of litter. Secondly, young people organize collecting paper for recycling. Also we clean parks in the city centre.

 

It's great news that you are going to Italy! How long are you going to stay there? Are you going alone or with your family? What cities are you going to visit?

 

That's all for now. Got to go. Write soon.

Best wishes,


Kate


Ошибки учащихся при написании письма


  • нарушения в объеме письма (если в задании С1 менее 90 слов, то задание проверке не подлежит и оценивается в 0 баллов; при превышении объема более чем на 10%, т. е. если в задании С1 более 154 слов, проверяется только та часть работы, которая соответствует требуемому объему)

  • неполное выполнение коммуникативной задачи или, напротив, сообщение нерелевантной информации;

  • несоблюдение принятых норм этикета (например, в письме отсутствует благодарность за полученную корреспонденцию или ссылка на предыдущие контакты);

  • несоблюдение принятых норм оформления письма (учащиеся забывают написать или неправильно пишут адрес или дату, не оставляют пропущенную строку между адресом и датой, между датой и обращением, не делят письмо на абзацы, и т.д.);

  • использование языковых средств, не соответствующих неофициальному стилю, принятому в данном типе письменных сообщений.


2. Письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения "Ваше мнение"
Требования к написанию сочинения-рассуждения


Задание

Тип задания

Проверяемые умения

Требуемый объем

Время выполнения

С 2

Высокий уровень

Письмен-нное высказы-вание с элемента-ми рассуж-дения

- Высказать свое мнение и привести аргументы, доказательства, примеры

- Сделать вывод. Последовательно и логически правильно строить высказывание

-Использовать соответствующие средства логической связи

-Правильно оформить стилистически в соответствии с поставленной задачей


200-250 слов

40 минут


Письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения оценивается по следующим критериям (max 14 баллов):


  • содержание (max 3 балла)

  • организация текста (max 3 балла)

  • лексика (max 3 балла)

  • грамматика (max 3 балла)

  • орфография (max 2 балла)

ИТОГО: max 14 баллов
Задание для учащегося (opinion composition)
C2 You have 40 minutes to do this task. Comment on the following statement:

Some people say that computers have made our life easier and more convenient. Other people say that computers have made life more complex and stressful. What is your opinion?
Write 200-250 words.



Use the following plan:

- make an introduction (state the problem)

- express your personal opinion and give 2 – 3 reasons for it

- express an opposing opinion and give 1 – 2 reasons for this opposing opinion

- explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

- make a conclusion restating your position
Примерный образец сочинения
Can you imagine life without computers? Whether in the office, school or at home, computers have become an indispensable part of our everyday existence. Yet some people have doubts whether the changes they have brought about are really for the better?

In my opinion, the benefits of computers cannot be denied. To begin with, they save valuable time and space. Time-consuming tasks, such as checking bank accounts, can now be done in a matter of minutes and large amounts of information are easily stored on small disks. In addition, with immediate access to the Internet, they allow us to explore the world from the comfort of our homes. As a result, we can always keep up-to-date with global and current issues. Finally, computers provide entertainment: we can watch films, listen to music, or play games.

Still some people have a different point of view. They claim that computer technology may progress rapidly, but machines still make mistakes. It is not uncommon for computers to suddenly crash, deleting whole files of essential information. Another negative effect of computers is that people become easily dependent on them. A lot of young people spend all their free time in front of the computer, isolating themselves from other people their age.
But I do not agree with this point of view. Most computers are quite reliable. If we have any problems with them, we can easily get help. Besides, computers are no more addictive than watching TV.
In conclusion, I strongly believe that computers have improved the quality of our life. Computer is the future of our culture. But despite of all great influence of computers on our life, we should not overuse them.

Оформление сочинения «высказывание мнения»
1. Вступление: постановка проблемы

Вступление должно содержать постановку проблемы и указывать на ее двойственный характер. Можно использовать следующие фразы:


  • Nowadays, we are often told…

  • It is common knowledge that ...

  • Some people think that … Others claim….

  • It is popularly believed that...

  • It is often suggested...

  • People often claim that..


In today`s world so many new products, cosmetics and medicines are coming out every day. Many people believe that they should be tested on animals. Other people claim to stop animal experiments once and for all.
2. Выражение своего мнения

Во втором абзаце необходимо выразить свое мнение и привести 2 – 3 развернутых аргумента в поддержку своего мнения.


  • In my opinion,

  • I strongly believe that...

  • It seems to me that…

  • To my mind,
  • As far as I am concerned,



Для представления аргументов можно использовать следующие фразы:


  • Firstly/ In the first place,

  • To start/ begin with,

  • Secondly/ In addition,

  • Furthermore, Moreover/ What is more,

  • Thirdly/ Finally,

  • Above all,

  • Not to mention the fact that…


In my opinion, animal testing is necessary. Firstly, animal testing allows scientists to test and create new drugs. Without animal testing, the cure for polio would not exist and diabetics would suffer or die from their disease. Secondly, animal testing is cheap. There is a large supply of animals for medical research. Animals are easily bred, and maintained safely in controlled labs. The costs of testing in humans would be extremely high. Moreover, some research about animals involves only natural behavior or pure observation.
3. Мнение других людей

В третьем абзаце необходимо представить противоположную точку зрения и привести 1 – 2 аргумента, подтверждающие данное мнение.


  • However, some people have a different point of view.

  • Nevertheless, some people argue that…

  • People argue that...

  • Opponents of this view say...

  • There are people who oppose...

  • Contrary to what most people believe...

However, some people claim that animal testing is cruel. They are sure that it is inhumane to use animals in experiments. Opponents of animal testing also claim that the results are not applicable to humans. They do not believe that every new drug needs to be tested on animals, especially with the huge database of knowledge and modern computer models. They also are worried that many animal tests are ineffective, pointing out that some drugs have to be withdrawn from the market despite extensive testing.


4. Контраргументы
В данном абзаце нужно объяснить, почему вы не согласны с противоположным мнением и аргументировать свою точку зрения.


  • Personally, I cannot agree with this point of view because…

  • As for me, I disagree with this opinion…

  • However, I do not share their opinion…

  • Nevertheless, I do not think these people are right because…

  • Actually, these opinions are not convincing because…


However, I think these arguments are not convincing because we simply do not have alternative methods of testing. Computer models are not advanced enough, and testing on plants is much less applicable to humans than tests on animals such as monkeys. Until we have a better system, we must use animal testing.
4. Вывод

В заключительном абзаце необходимо подвести итог вышесказанному, сделать вывод и подтвердить собственную точку зрения.

  • To sum up, I strongly believe that…

  • All in all, I would say that…

  • All things considered, I think…

  • On the whole, I believe…

  • In conclusion, I want to stress that…

  • Taking everything into account, I am convinced that…


In conclusion, I strongly believe that animal testing may be unavoidable at present. But we need to make sure that these animals are treated with the minimum of suffering. Until we have a better system, we must use animal testing.

При написании сочинения нужно помнить:


  1. Соблюдать требуемый объем в задании (200 – 250 слов): если в задании менее 180 слов, то задание проверке не подлежит и оценивается в 0 баллов.

  2. Использовать формальный стиль письма.

  3. Структуры предложений должны быть сложными: безличные предложения, страдательный залог.
  4. Постараться использовать более сложную лексику.


  5. Не употреблять сокращений (don’t, there’s, etc.).

  6. Соблюдать правила орфографии и пунктуации.



Примеры подготовительных упражнений для учащихся
1. Put the parts of this letter in the correct order
A. Anyway, I've got to go now. Loads of homework (unfortunately!)

B. I'm sorry to hear you've had an argument with your best friend and that you're not speaking at the moment. Yes, it has happened to me too, and it's awful, isn't it?

C. Carol

D. Dear Sally,

E. Write back soon!

F. Thanks for your letter. It was great to hear from you! Well done on passing your exams!

G. I think you need to ask yourself one question: what's more important- that argument or your friendship? I remember when I asked myself that it all became clear. I realized my friendship with Chris was far more important. I called him immediately and told him. We became friends again immediately. Maybe you should do the same thing. Let me know what happens! Good luck!

H. 23 Portland Street

Manchester

MN3 6YL

24th September
Key: HDFBGAEC
2. Read the sentences and decide which are from introductions and which are from conclusions


  • Please let me know as soon as possible.

  • I'm writing to invite you to my birthday party on 6th May.

  • I'm sure it will be fun, and I hope you'll be able to come.

  • Looking forward to seeing you then.

  • We’re organising a fancy-dress party and it would be great if you could come.

  • We'd love it if you could come to our house-warming party on 27th January.


Key: 1,2,5-writers opinion 3,4,6-balanced consideration

3. Put these jumbled sentences in the correct order

Package holidays: Good or Bad?


A However, there are disadvantages to going on a package holiday.

В То start with, package holidays are cheaper than travelling on your own, as the price includes the air fare and hotel accommodation.

С Another negative aspect is that as you have paid for your accom­modation in advance, you often feel obliged to stay in that place rather than move around and explore.

D Furthermore, the brochures from which most people select a package holiday usually give you a good idea of what the resort offers, therefore reducing the chances of disappointment.

E Package holidays have several advantages.

F In the first place, as package holidays are less expensive, the hotel is unlikely to be top-class.

G Last but not least, when visiting a new place it is often much easier to have all the details arranged in advance as it can be rather con­fusing to plan everything by yourself.

H Also package holiday destinations are usually popular tourist resorts, thus there is little opportunity to experience the true culture of the country you are visiting.
Key: 1E,2B,3D,4G,5A,6F,7H,8C

4. Which of these sentences express the opinion given in the heading, and which express the opposing point of view?
Having a pet is good for you.
1 In my opinion, owning a pet teaches children to become responsible adults.

2 In addition, a pet can be amusing.

3 However, pets need a lot of care and attention.

4 What is more, certain pets can be useful if you train them properly.

5 On the other hand, pets can be a nuisance.

6 Firstly, a pet can be good company.

Key: 1,2,4,6-opinion given in the heading 3,5-opposing point of view