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Switzerland (Reg. No. 499 949), class 16:


  • Declaration (type of mark): color mark

  • Specification: PANTONE 347 MC

  • Acquired distinctiveness in accordance with consumer survey

nited Kingdom (No Reg. No. given), classes 6, 11, 19 and 20:

Description: The distribution and ratio of the colours to each other is 50-50, whereby the colour blue runs horizontally above the colour red, forming a striped whole.
Indication of colour: Blue RAL5015, Red RAL 2002

United Kingdom (Reg. No. 2360815A), class 33:

Mark Description: The mark consists of vodka coloured black, in the colour “PANTONE black”.

Mark Claim/Limit: The applicant claims the colour black (“PANTONE black”) as an element of the mark.


Switzerland (Reg. No. IR 683 249), classes 9, 16, 36 and 38:

Singapore (Reg. No. T03/04435F), class 3:

United States of America (Reg. No. 2,793,39), for various telecommunication

services in class 39:

Madagascar (No Reg. No. given), class 36:

Switzerland (Reg. No. 357 711), class 31:


Switzerland (Reg. No. 486 730), classes 9 and 41: “HARRY POTTER”

United States of America (Reg. No. 3,106,202), for a series of pocket-sized

fiction books with western theme: “SILVER KANE”

[Конец Приложения и документа]

1See, for example: European Directive on marks (Article 2), European Regulation on the Community Trade Mark (Article 4), Andean Community Decision No. 486 (Article 134.f)), OAPI Agreement (Annex III, Article 2.1), etc.

2See “Summary of Replies to the Questionnaire on Trademark Law and Practice (SCT/11/6)”, document WIPO/Strad/INF/1, pp.17 and 18, at .

363 out of 72 Offices responding to the Questionnaire considered the shape which results from the nature of the goods themselves to constitute an absolute ground for refusal of the application. Ibid., p. 21.

453 out of 67 Offices responding to the Questionnaire considered the shape, which is necessary to obtain a technical result an absolute ground for refusal of the application. Ibid., p. 22.

5ECKHARTT, Klaus “The Razor’s Edge” in Trademark World No. 171, October 2004, p. 40.

6For example, in Hong Kong. See BARRACLOUGH, Emma “Tips on non-traditional marks in Asia”, Managing Intellectual Property, November 2005, p. 39 and European Regulation on the Community Trade Mark, Article 7(1)(e).

7See Henkel KgaA v OHIM, Case T-393/02 [2005] E.T.M.R. 6, as reported by SIMON, Ilanah in “ECJ decisions reveal tension over registrability”, Managing Intellectual Property, Vol. 2005, No. 149, p. 58.

8See Nestlé Waters France v OHIM, Case T-305/02 [2004] E.T.M.R. 41, as reported by Peter Turner-Kerr in “EU Intellectual Property Law: Recent Case Developments”, IP Quarterly, 2004, No. 4, pp. 476 and 477.

9However, 50 out of 67 Offices responding said that, where the mark was refused, the holder could not prove that his/her sign had acquired distinctive character through use. See Questionnaire, op.cit., p. 22.

10See Questionnaire, op. cit., p. 22.

11See the practice in Australia, Japan and Singapore, BARRACLOUGH, op cit., pp. 37, 41 and  3.

12See Questionnaire, op. cit., p. 26.

13See European Court of Justice in Libertel Groep v Benelux-Merkenbureau Case C-104/01[2003] E.T.M.R 41.

14See Federal Court of Australia in Philmac Pty Ltd v the Registrar of Trademarks (2002) 56 IPR 452 and BP Plc v Woolworths Limited (2004) 62 IPR 545, See BARRACLOUGH, op.cit., p. 37.

15See Qualitex Co. v. Jacobson Products Co., Inc., 514 US. 159, 34 USPQ.2d 1161.

16See United States of America, 7. Color, Trademark Reporter, INTA, 13th Annual International Review of Trademark Jurisprudence. March-April 2006, Vol. 96, No. 2, p. 235.

17For example, in the “blue bottle trademark” case, the Registrar of Trademarks in the United Kingdom held that the applicant should have provided such evidence. Ty Nant Spring Water Ltd’s Trade Mark Application [2000] R.P.C. 55.

18The criteria established by the ECJ in Ralf Sieckmann v Deutsches Patent-und Markenamt, Case C-273/00 [2002] E.C.R. I-11737, paragraph 55.

19See Libertel, op.cit., paragraphs 28 to 38.

20See Heidelberger Bauchemie GmbH Case 49/02 [2004] E.T.M.R. 99, paragraph 33.

21Information provided by the UK Patent Office, June 2006.

22The color purple for “block chocolate, chocolate in bar or tablet form”. Cadbury Ltd v JH Whittaker & Sons Ltd, Case No. T26/2004, the Assistant Commissioner of Trademarks of New Zealand (IPONZ), November 14, 2004, See Trademark Reporter, INTA, op.cit., pp. 488 and 489.

23See India, color marks, BARRACLOUGH, op.cit., pp. 40 and 41.

24See RØNNING, Debbie, “Taste, smell and sound – Future Trademarks? at .

25See SIECKMANN, Ralf “Holograms: the next generation of trademarks?”, CPA’s IP Review, Winter 2005/06, Issue 13, page 26.

26See Questionnaire, op. cit., p. 30.

27See Questionnaire, op. cit., p. 28.

28See Société des Produits Nestlé v Mars UK Ltd., Case C-353/03 E.T.M.R., paragraph 23.

29See OHIM v Erpo Möbelwerk GmbH, Case C-64/02 P (Das Prinzip der Bequemlichkeit) [2004] E.T.M.R., paragraph 35.

30See Questionnaire, op. cit., p. 31.

31See PASSA, Jérôme, “Titres et slogans: entre marque et droit d’auteur”, Propriétés intellectuelles, January 2005, No. 14, pp. 35-36.

32See for example US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in Herbko International, Inc. vs. Kappa Books Inc., (308 F. 3rd 1156), September 3, 2002.

33For example, in Germany’s §5(1), (3) and §15 of the 1994 Trade Marks Act. According to §5(3) titles are “names or special designations of printed publications, cinematographic works, musical works, dramatic works or other comparable works”. See KLINK, Jan, “Titles in Europe: Trade Names, Copyright Works or Title Marks?”, European Intellectual Property Review, Vol. 7, No. 7, August 2004, pp. 297-300.

34See RØNNING, op. cit., “Moving image mark”.

35See Questionnaire, op. cit., p. 33.

36See VÖLKER, Stephan, “Registering new forms under the Community Trademark”, Trademark World No. 152, November 2002, p. 32.

37The classical examples being those that take the form of a fabric tag or decorative top stitching on the back pocket of jeans.

38Mars BV has a registration in the Benelux Trademark Register for a gesture of two cutting fingers for its TWIX chocolate (BX No. 520574). In the UK, there is a registration for services in the field of mortage and investments (UK No. 2012603), which shows a person tapping his/her nose. See RØNNING, op. cit., “Gesture Marks”.

39See, for example Article L.711-1,b of the French Code la propriété intellectuelle and Article 134(c) of Andean Community Decision 486 “Common Provisions on Industrial Property”.

40The ECJ made this interpretation in Shield Mark BV v Kist, Case C-283/01 [2004], paragraph 35.

41In Australia, for example, the “Mr. Whippy” tune has been registered despite the strong word mark “Mr. Whippy” for ice cream and the “Dolmio” Sicilian waltz will clearly be played in advertisements incorporating the product’s well-known trade name “Dolmio” for its pasta sauce. See McCUTCHEON, Jani “The Registration of Sounds and Scents as Trade Marks under Australian Law”, Intellectual Property Quarterly, Issue 2, 2004, pp. 167 and 168.

42See Questionnaire, op. cit., p. 27.

43See Australia, sound marks, BARRACLOUGH, op.cit., pp. 37 and 38.

44Ibid, Singapore, sound marks, at p. 43.

45In Shield Mark BV v Kist, the ECJ cited its previous ruling and recalled the “Sieckmann criteria” for the graphic representation of trademarks. See Ralf Sieckmann v Deutsches Patent-und Markenamt, op.cit., paragraph 55.

46See Shield Mark BV v Kist, op.cit., Ruling, paragraph 2.

47See Questionnaire, op. cit., pp. 28 and 29.

48See Re Celia Clarke, DBA Clarke’s Osewez, U.S.P.Q. 2d 1238 (1990) (TTAB). The mark was described as “a high impact, fresh, floral fragrance reminiscent of Plumeria blossoms” for use with sewing thread and embroidery yarn.

49See Trade Marks Registry Work Manual, Chapter 6.2.2 “Examination” at . See also: Trademark 2001416 “the trademark is a floral fragrance/smell reminiscent of roses as applied to tyres” and Trademark 2000234 “the mark comprises the strong smell of bitter beer applied to flights of darts”. See UK Patent Office .

50See Australia, smell marks, BARRACLOUGH, op.cit., p. 37.

51USPTO Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure (2002) WLTMEP3rd 807.11 (WL).

52See Ralf Sieckmann v Deutsches Patent-und Markenamt, op.cit. paragraph 19(2). The applicant sought to register the pure chemical substance methyl cinnamate. He provided a chemical formula and described the odor as “balsamically fruity with a slight hint of cinnamon” in respect of various services in Classes 35, 41 and 42 of the International Nice Classification. See paragraphs 10 to 13.

53Ibid, paragraphs 69 to 73. After the Sieckmann ruling, the ECJ has applied the same criteria for the graphic representation of other non-traditional signs, such as color in the Libertel case, and sound in the Shield Mark case. See supra notes 13 and 39.

54See Ralf Sieckmann v Deutsches Patent-und Markenamt, op.cit. final ruling.

55Eden SARL v OHIM, Case T-305/04, October 27, 2005 concerning the “smell of ripe strawberries” for a wide variety of household goods, leather goods and paper goods.

56For example, in the Benelux Office the following mark has been registered (DE SMAAK VON DROP BX No. 625971). “The trademark consists of the taste of liquorice applied to goods in class 16 (taste mark)”. See RØNNING, op. cit., “Taste marks”.

57 Eli Lilly and Co. v INPI, Court of Appeal of Paris, 4th Chamber, October 3, 2003, Recueil Dalloz, Vol. 184 (2004), No. 33, p 2433. The application concerned a taste mark constituting “the artificial taste of strawberry” for pharmaceutical, veterinary and hygiene products and diet substances for medical use.

58It has been mentioned that the glass bottle of Coca-Cola was designed in 1915 to also be recognized in the dark. See RØNNING, op. cit., “Feel marks (tactile marks)”.

59See Questionnaire, op. cit., p. 33.

60Application No. 140058, of December 17, 2003, and registration granted though title No. 29597 of April 28, 2004 “Textura Superficie Old Parr” for alcoholic beverages, Instituto Ecuatoriano de la Propiedad Intelectual (IEPI).

61See Questionnaire, op. cit., pp. 56-59.

62See Questionnaire, op. cit., pp. 60-61.

63Article 6quinquies(A)(1) of the Paris Convention reads as follows: “Every trademark duly registered in the country of origin shall be accepted for filing and protected as is in the other countries of the [Paris] Union…”.

64See Questionnaire, op. cit., pp. 6-7.

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