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2. Найдите во втором абзаце текста субъектный инфинитивный оборот, переведите предложение.
3. Спишите предложения, подчеркните в них сказуемое.

а) The official language of Great Britain is English.

б) In 1492 the Italian Christopher Columbus rediscovered America.

в) As you know the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is London.
4. Образуйте множественное число от следующих существительных: country, kingdom, monarchy, partner, colony, state.
5. Переведите текст на русский язык.
English-Speaking Countries

1. The United Kingdom (also called Great Britain) is known to consist of four main parts-England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is a parliamentary monarchy and the state language is English.

2. It has a population of approximately 57million people and an area of about 240,640 square kilometers. London is the capital city. Britain is a member of the European Community (also called the Common Market) and its main trading partners are known to be the ES countries and North America.

3. Britain's main exports are cars, machinery, textiles and chemicals and its invisible exports include banking, insurance and tourism. Britain's North Sea oil also makes it one of the world's oil producers.

4. The USA is a Federal Republic which consists of 50 states and the District of Columbia where the capital of Columbia where the capital of the USA Washington is situated. Originally there were only 13 states that’s why the American flag (sometimes called the "stars and stripes") consists of 13 horizontal stripes and 50 stars.

5. Leif Ericsson first discovered America in about 1000AD, but the Italian, Christopher Columbus rediscovered it in 1492. Soon the British and other Europeans founded their colonies on the new continent. For example, Sir Walter Raleigh started the first British colony, Virginia, in 1585. This became one the original thirteen states of the USA.


6. The war of Independence from Britain started in 1774. Congress passed the Declaration of Independence on 4th July 1776. Every year the Americans still celebrate Independence Day on 4th July. George Washington became the first president of the US in 1789.
6. Ответьте на вопросы.

а) What English-speaking countries do you know?

б) What is the official name of England?

в) What is the official name of US?

г) Who is the leader of Great Britain?
7. Составьте два общих вопроса по тексту.
8. Составьте два специальных вопроса по тексту.
9. Образуйте Participle I от следующих глаголов: to make, to found, to discover, to call.
10. Образуйте Participle II от следующих глаголов: to export, to consist, to become, to know.
ВАРИАНТ 5
1. Выберите правильный вариант (задание выполняется по образцу, приведенному в варианте 1).

А. Население

1. populate




2. population




3. populated







Б. Модный

1. fashionable




2. fashion




3. fashionably







В. Первоначальный

1. original





2. originally




3. origin







Г. Разный

1. difference




2. different




3. differently







Д. Rebuild

1. перестраивать




2. перестраивать вновь




3. не перестраивать







Е. История

1. historic




2. historical




3. history







Ж. Approximately

1. приблизительный




2. приблизительно




3. приближаясь







З. Parliamentary

1. парламентарный




2. парламентарий




3. парламент



2. Определите функции – (е)s (образец выполнения см. вариант 1).

a) Today Greater London covers 625 square miles.

б) London consists of 33 districts, including the City, the West End and the East End.

в) 23. St. Paul’s Cathedral is the second largest building in Europe.

г) London houses more than 11 million people.
3. Найдите во втором абзаце текста прилагательное в превосходной степени, переведите его.
4. Найдите в третьем и четвертом абзаце текста глаголы в страдательном (пассивном) залоге, переведите их.
5. Переведите текст на русский язык.
London

1. London, the capital of Great Britain, is the largest city in Europe with the population of about eleven million people. The old traditions, still observed by the English, make London unique. London is a very old city; it is approximately 2000 years old.

2. Modern London is one of the most important cities in the world. It is the political, economical and commercial centre of England and the whole United Kingdom. London is a strange mixture of the past, present, of the rich and the poor.

3. It is old-fashioned and very modern at the same time. It is a city of great contrasts. The city has never been planned and it consists of many parts, which are very different from each other. There is the West End and the East End, Westminster and the City. Holborn, Bloomsbury, Soho, Kensington are parts of London too. There is the Tower and the Docks, Historic London and Modern London.


4. The name of the West End is connected with wealth and luxury. The West End is the place of residence of the London bourgeoisie. Rich visitors who came chiefly for enjoyment pass most of their time in the West End. The best and most expensive clubs, restaurants and theatres, beautiful houses and parks are in the West End. The West End is a fashionable shopping and entertainment centre.

5. The working class of London is centered in the East End. It includes all the main dock areas and is heavily industrialized. Many buildings were destroyed during the war and have not been rebuilt yet. Those who live in the East End love the East End and are proud that they have the right to call themselves "cockneys". The word "cockney" means "a true Londoner".

6. The City is the oldest part of London, the financial and business centre of Britain, where the big banks, firms are situated. St. Paul’s Cathedral in the City is one of the most famous sights of London. It was built for 35 years. Tower Bridge is called the river gate of London. The University of London and the British Museum are situated here. The library of the Museum is one of the richest in the world. Also interesting is the world famous Waxwork Museum of Madam Tussaud, in which life-like figures of historic personages and famous criminals are exhibited.
6. Ответьте на вопросы.

а) What is the population of London?

б) How many years is London?

в) What is the oldest part of London?

г) Where can you find life-like figures of historic personages and famous criminals?
7. Составьте два общих вопроса по тексту.
8. Составьте два специальных вопроса по тексту.
9. Образуйте три формы от следующих глаголов: to make, to have, to include, to rebuild.
10. Образуйте три степени сравнения от следующих прилагательных: unique, expensive, big, old, famous.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №2

Для того, чтобы выполнить работу, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса:


  1. Инфинитив, инфинитивные обороты, способы перевода на русский язык;

  2. Причастия, причастные обороты, способы перевода на русский язык;

  3. Герундий, герундиальный оборот, способы перевода на русский язык.

ВАРИАНТ 1

  1. Переведите интернациональные слова: address, discipline, design, logistics, strategy, tactics, statistical analysis, economics, campaign, policy, transport.

  2. Переведите группы однокоренных слов, обращая внимание на слообразовательные элементы:

  • Maintain, maintenance, maintained;

  • Acquire, acquisition, acquisitive, acquired;

  • Develop, development, developed, developing;

  • Distribute, distribution, distributed, distributor;

  • Operate, operation, operating, operative.

  1. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную форму:

  • Combat service support deals with maintenance of military forces.

  • Military officials must make judgments about army’s immediate needs.

  1. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную форму:

  • Protecting one's own supply lines and attacking those of an enemy is a fundamental military strategy.

  • Operations research grew out of WWII military logistics efforts.

  1. Переведите текст на русский язык.

Military logistics

Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is those aspects that military operations deal with.
  • Design, development, acquisition, storage, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel.


  • Transport of personnel.

  • Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities.

  • Acquisition or furnishing of services.

  • Medical and health service support.

Logistics, occasionally referred to as "combat service support", must address highly uncertain conditions. While perfect forecasts are rarely possible (this is also true in most sciences) forecasts models can reduce uncertainty about what supplies or services will be needed, where and when they will be needed, or the best way to provide them.

Ultimately, responsible officials must make judgments on these matters, sometimes using intuition and scientifically weighing alternatives as the situation requires and permits. Their judgments must be based not only upon professional knowledge of the numerous aspects of logistics itself but also upon an understanding of the interplay of closely related military considerations such as strategy, tactics, intelligence, training, personnel, and finance.

However, case studies have shown that more quantitative, statistical analysis are often a significant improvement on human judgment. One such recent example is the use of Applied Information Economics by the Office of Naval Research and the Marine Corps for forecasting bulk fuel requirements for the battlefield.

More generally, protecting one's own supply lines and attacking those of an enemy is a fundamental military strategy; an example of this as a purely logistical campaign for the military means of implementing strategic policy was the Berlin Airlift.

Military logistics has pioneered a number of techniques that have since become widely deployed in the commercial world. Operations research grew out of WWII military logistics efforts. Likewise, military logistics borrows from methods first introduced to the commercial world.

  1. Ответьте на вопросы:

  • What are the aspects of military logistics?


  • Why is forecasting so important for combat service support?

  • Which scientific methods are used in the sphere of military logistics?

  • Which techniques grew out of military logistics efforts?

  1. Переведите, обращая внимание на значение суффиксов: commerce – commercial, logistics – logistical, operation – operational, statistics – statistical, profession – professional, science – scientific, finance – financial.

  2. Составьте два общих вопроса по тексту.

  3. Составьте два специальных вопроса по тексту.

  4. Составьте по-английски план пересказа текста.


ВАРИАНТ 2

  1. Выберите правильный вариант:

А. Вегетарианец 1. vegetable

2. vegetarian

3. vegetation
Б. Упаковка 1. package

2. pocket

3. packet
В. Углеводы 1. alkali

2. carbohydrates

3. cereal
Г. Белок 1. pouch

2. calcium

3. protein
Д. Химический 1. chemical

2. chemist

3. chemistry
Е. Запас 1. store

2. storage

3. storey
Ж. Компактный 1. contain

2. compass

3. compact
З. Рацион 1. ratio

2. ration

3. diet


  1. Выберите в каждой строке лишнее слово:

  • Protein, carbohydrate, calcium, calorie.

  • Pouch, carton, heater, bag.

  • Chicken, tuna, dessert, cream.

  • Plastic, foil, ethnic, metal.

  • Delicious, fruit-based, flavoured, hard.



  1. Переведите обращая внимание на значение префиксов: rich – enrich, pack – unpack, cooked-precooked, use – misuse, arrange – prearrange- disarrange, able-enable, order-disorder, safe-unsafe.


  2. Образуйте множественное число следующих существительных: sandwich, tissue, packet, calorie, pouch, shelf, accessory, match.


5. Переведите текст на русский язык:

The United States' Meal Ready-to-Eat.

The United States' Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE) is packaged similarly to the Canadian ration. Each sealed plastic bag contains one entire precooked meal, with a number of supplements and accessories. The original 12 menus have been expanded to 24 and now contain a variety of ethnic and special request items as well. Vegetarian menus are also provided. Each meal bag contains an 8-oz main course (packaged in a four-layer plastic and foil laminate retort pouch), hard military crackers, some form of spread (cheese, peanut butter, or jelly), a fruit-based beverage powder, some form of dessert (cake, candy, cookies, or fruit), and an accessory packet containing coffee or tea, creamer, sugar, salt, matches, a plastic spoon, and toilet paper. A chemical heater is packed with every meal.

The First Strike Ration (FSR) is a compact, eat-on-the-move ration to be used for no more than three days during initial periods of highly intense, highly mobile combat assaults. A single FSR (24 hours food) is about 50% of the size and weight of three MREs. Each FSR provides 2900 calories (15% protein, 53% carbohydrates, 34% fat), versus the 3800 calories in three MREs, and has a two-year shelf life when stored at 80°F. An FSR is packed in a single bag and contains filled pocket sandwiches, a pouch of tuna or chicken, two packets of ERGO high-energy drink mix, two high-energy cereal bars (First Strike Bars), a dairy-based calcium-enriched dessert bar, two packets of beef jerky, fortified applesauce, nut and fruit mix, caffeinated gum, and an accessory pack containing a beverage mix, salt, matches, tissues, plastic spoon.

6. Ответьте на вопросы:
  • What is included in the United States’ Meal Ready-to-Eat?


  • Which elements are considered to be necessary for an American soldier?

  • Which types of packaging are mentioned in the text?

  • What are the components of the First Strike Ration?

  • What are the advantages of the modern military food?


7. Составьте два общих вопроса по тексту.

8. Составьте два специальных вопроса по тексту.

9. Образуйте три формы следующих глаголов: contain, fortify, be, know, provide.

10. Образуйте три степени сравнения следующих прилагательных: hard, tasty, useful, delicious, healthy, comfortable.
ВАРИАНТ 3

1.Переведите группы однокоренных слов, обращая внимание на словообразовательные элементы:

  • Establish, establishment, established;

  • Diet, dietary, dietitian, dietetics;

  • Limit, limitation, limited;

  • Add, addition, additive, additional

  • Vary, variety, various, varied.

2. Образуйте прилагательные от следующих существительных: calorie, instance, fold, day, norm, help.

3. Образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов: intend, replace, contain, deliver, open, instruct, provide, heat.

4. Образуйте наречия от следующих прилагательных: general, instant, explicit, recent, entire, different.

5. Прочитайте, переведите текст и заполните таблицу:

Type of ration

food

package


The Russian Federation Individual Food Rations

The Russian Federation recently began issuing the Individual Food Rations - in both daily and combat versions. Modeled somewhat upon the French RCIR, it is a thin plastic blister box that contains an entire day's food, plus a limited number of supplements. Contrary to the popular misconception, this ration isn't intended to replace the normal rations, but only to provide sufficient caloric intake for the situation where prepared hot food delivery isn't established yet. It is explicitly forbidden to be used for more than 6 days straight due to dietary deficiences. It contains 2 square main-course foil cans (generally meat with cereal or vegetables, but sometimes fish), 1 can of stewed beef or pork, 1 (or 2 in combat version) can of meat spread (sausage stuffing or liver paté), and 6 (4) packages of crackers. Also included are two foil pouches of fruit jam, an envelope of beverage powder, 2 packages of instant tea or coffee, 2 packets of sugar, 3 x paper towels, and a multivitamin tablet. Also included are a small can opener, a menu and instruction sheet, a disposable folding ration heater, and a blister pack of 4 solid fuel tablets. Combat version (IRP-B, or Individual Food Ration - Combat) adds a pea porridge concentrate, a dry milk and ketchup pouches, additional packs of instant coffee, sugar and tissues, as well as plastic spoon and water purifier tablets. Various other ration packs are also available for different needs and situations.

6.Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  • What is the Individual Food Ration intended for?

  • How many versions of the Individual Food Ration do you know?

  • When can the Individual Food Ration be used?

  • How long can the Individual Food Ration be kept?

  • What does it contain?

  • How does the Individual Food Ration satisfy our daily needs for vitamins and microelements?

7. Образуйте Participle I от следующих глаголов: to issue, to include, to instruct, to purify, to fold.

8. Переведите и определите тип причастия (Participle I или Participle II):

  • The Russian Federation recently began issuing the Individual Food Rations.

  • This ration isn't intended to replace the normal rations.

  • It is explicitly forbidden to be used for more than 6 days straight due to dietary differences.

  • Also included is a disposable folding ration heater.

9. Составьте два общих и два специальных вопроса к тексту.

10.Составьте план пересказа текста по-английски.


ВАРИАНТ 4

1.Переведите группы однокоренных слов, обращая внимание на словообразовательные элементы:

  • protect, protection, protective;

  • clothe, clothes, clothing;

  • equip, equipment, equipped;

  • extinguish, extinguishing, extinguishment, extinguished;

  • employ, employee, employer, unemployment.

2. Образуйте прилагательные от следующих существительных: legislation, support, safety, person, administration.

3. Образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов: resist,fight,change,cover,remove,reflect,occupy.

4. Образуйте наречия от следующих прилагательных: chemical,internal,safe,effective,special.

5. Прочитайте, переведите текст и заполните таблицу:


Item of equipment

Function


Personal protective equipment

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garment or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury by blunt impacts, electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and infection, for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, and in sports, martial arts, combat, etc. Personal armor is combat-specialized protective gear. The turnout gear of firefighters includes jackets, pants, boots. The standard jackets and pants have a three-layer design with reflective stripes on the heat/tear resistant shell. The middle shell removes moisture, such as sweat, so the firefighters don't overheat. The internal layer is a vapor layer that helps keep the firefighter safe. The boots have a steel insole to prevent the firefighter's foot from being impaled by nails or other debris. Their helmets also have a shroud that wraps around their jacket collar to protect their necks. In British legislation the term PPE does not cover items such as armour. The terms "protective gear" and "protective clothing" are in many cases interchangeable; "protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and "gear" is a more general term and preferably means uniquely protective categories, such as pads, guards, shields, masks, etc. Items such as fire extinguishers, first aid kits are equipment to support the personal protection of the subject. Police use handcuffs, tasers, batons and handguns as PPE. The use of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels.

6.Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  • What are the main items of PPE?


  • Why do firefighters and emergency responders use it?

  • When do firefighters use PPE?

  • What is the difference between the terms "protective gear" and "protective clothing"?

  • What is used as PPE by the police?

7. Переведите обращая внимание на значение префиксов: possible – impossible, changeable-interchangeable, understand-misunderstand, appear-disappear, effective-ineffective, arrange – prearrange- disarrange.

8.Образуйте Participle I от следующих глаголов: to protect, to include, to moist , to reduce, to fold.

9. Составьте два общих и два специальных вопроса к тексту.

10.Составьте план пересказа текста по-английски.
ВАРИАНТ 5

  1. Переведите интернациональные слова: risk, effect, design, engineer, discipline, industry, revolution, economics, method, innovation, catastrophe.

2.Выберите в каждой строке лишнее слово:

  • Protect, prevent, control, contain.

  • Fire, motivation, catastrophe, conflagration.

  • Identify, investigate, evaluate, include.

  • Discipline, rule, regulation, law

3. Переведите группы однокоренных слов, обращая внимание на слообразовательные элементы:

  • Identify, identity, identification, indentified;

  • Depend, dependence, dependent ,independent;

  • Organize, organization, organizing, organized;

  • Distribute, distribution, distributed, distributor;

  • Operate, operation, operating, operative, operator.

4.Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную форму:

  • Fire protection engineers assist architects, building owners and developers in evaluating buildings' life safety and property protection goals.
  • The first degree program in fire protection engineering was initiated in 1903.

  1. Переведите текст на русский язык.

Fire protection engineering

Fire protection engineers identify risks and design safeguards that aid in preventing, controlling, and mitigating the effects of fires. Fire protection engineers assist architects, building owners and developers in evaluating buildings' life safety and property protection goals. FPEs are also employed as fire investigators, including such very large-scale cases as the analysis of the collapse of the World Trade Centers. NASA uses fire protection engineers in its space program to help improve safety. Fire protection engineers are also employed to provide 3rd party review for performance based fire engineering solutions submitted in support of local building regulation applications. The discipline of fire protection engineering emerged in the early 20th century as a distinct discipline, separate from civil, mechanical and chemical engineering, in response to new fire problems posed by the Industrial Revolution. Fire protection engineers of this era concerned themselves with devising methods to protect large factories. Another motivation to organize the discipline, define practices and conduct research to support innovations was in response to the catastrophic conflagrations and mass urban fires that swept many major cities during the latter half of the 19th century. In 1903 the first degree program in fire protection engineering was initiated as the Armour Institute of Technology (later becoming part of the Illinois Institute of Technology). As the 20th century emerged, several catastrophic fires resulted in changes to buildings codes to better protect people and property from fire. It was only in the latter half of the 20th Century that fire protection engineering emerged as a unique engineering profession. The primary reason for this emergence was the development of the “body of knowledge,” specific to the profession that occurred after 1950. Other factors contributing to the growth of the profession include the start of the Institution of Fire Engineers in 1918 in the UK, and the Society of Fire Protection Engineers in 1950 in the USA, the emergence of independent fire protection consulting engineer, and the promulgation of engineering standards for fire protection.


6.Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  • What do fire protection engineers identify?

  • Whom do fire protection engineers assist?

  • When did the discipline of fire protection engineering emerge?

  • Why was the discipline of fire protection engineering organized?

7. Составьте два общих вопроса по тексту.

8. Составьте два специальных вопроса по тексту.

9. Образуйте три формы следующих глаголов: identify, be, sweep, own,evaluate.

10. Переведите, обращая внимание на значение суффиксов: prevent-prevention, develop-developer, mechanics-mechanical, catastrophe- catastrophic,



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