средняя общеобразовательная школа №2
городского округа город Буй Костромской области
элективного курса для учащихся 10-11-х классов
«Усиленная грамматика английского языка»
Автор программы учитель английского языка
МОУ СОШ №2 городского округа город Буй
элективного курса для учащихся 10-11-х классов
«Усиленная грамматика английского языка»
Нужно много учиться, чтобы немногое знать.
Настоящая программа является обучающей. Она составлена на основе образовательного стандарта основного (общего) и среднего (полного) образования по английскому языку. Программа позволяет освежить и обобщить знания учащихся в области грамматики английского языка.
К концу обучения в средней школе и в преддверии поступления в высшие и средние учебные заведения у учащихся возникает необходимость освежить, обобщить свои знания и скорректировать пробелы в них в области грамматики английского языка. Очень часто на уроках не бывает достаточно времени для закрепления определённых грамматических навыков. Так данный элективный курс позволяет значительно улучшить качество знаний учащихся в данном разделе изучения английского языка.
Курс рассчитан на 36 часов изучения, т.е. на занятия 1 раз в неделю в течение учебного года.
Формы обучения: занятие- лекция, практикум.
Ожидаемый результат. В процессе обучения учащиеся приобретают следующие умения: анализ и применение в речи изученных грамматических явлений. Совершенствуется навык чтения и обогащается словарный запас учащихся. Учащиеся становятся более уверенными в своих языковых знаниях.
Содержание элективного курса:
GRAMMAR: There/ to be
Much, many, a lot, (a) little, (a) few
The verbs to be, to have.
The Noun. Uncountable nouns.
Good evening. My name … Annabelle Hayes. I … French. I … three children. They …n’t French. They … English because my husband … English. He … a bank manager in London. My children … at school. My daughters … good pupils, but my son …n’t. My husband … a car and he drives it to work. I also … a car and I use it to go shopping. My son … a bicycle. It … blue.
Good morning. My name is John Hayes. I am English. I am … bank manager in London. I work in-office in … city. In … office there is … desk and … chair. On … desk there is … telephone and … vase. I live in … house in … country. In … house there is … living-room, … dining-room and … kitchen. There are three bedrooms, and two bathrooms. It is very quiet in … country.
I have three meals a day. In the morning I have a little porridge. Then I have tea with bread and butter. Sometimes I put a few slices of cheese on the bread. I don’t like sweet tea, so I put little sugar in it. But my sister (who is a sweet-tooth) puts many lumps in her tea. She is very fond of porridge too. She eats much porridge and puts much sugar in it. Sometimes she asks for another plate of porridge.
1. … arrived first? 2. … did you say? 3. … boy is you friend? 4. … is Easter? 5. … is the office? 6. … does it cost? 7. … words does he know? 8. … do you want to live in Geneve?
This is a match between a Finnish college team and a Spanish one. The Finnish players are taller than The Spanish. One of the Finns is taller than all the others in both teams. The shortest man’s in the Spanish team, but he is definitely the quickest.
At the beginning the Finnish team was quicker, but later the Spaniards were more successful. They were quicker and cleverer with the ball.
Now they are winning 90 to 87, but they are a bit more tired than the Finns. There’s only five minutes left. Which team is going to win the match? Can only tall people play basketball? Are there any good players among your friends?
GRAMMAR: Modal Verbs.
Simple Tenses (active. passive)
Conditional Sentences of Real Condition.
“Do you call that a hat?” – I said to my wife. “You needn’t be so rude about it, “My wife answered as she looked at herself in the mirror. I sat down on one of those modern chairs with holes in it and waited. We had been in the hat shop an hour and my wife was still in front of the mirror.
“We mustn’t buy things we don’t need,” I remarked suddenly. I regretted saying it almost at once.
“You needn’t have said that,” my wife answered. “I need not remind you of that terrible tie you bought yesterday.”
“I find it beautiful,” I said. “A man can never have too many ties.”
“And woman can’t have too many hats,” she answered.
Ten minutes later we walked out of the shop together. My wife was wearing a hat looked like a lighthouse!
N2 Jumbo versus the Police. (Modal verbs)
Last Christmas, the circus owner, Jimmy Gates, decided to take some presents to a children’s hospital. Dressed up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a “guard of honour” of six pretty girls, He set off down the main street of the city riding a baby elephant called Jumbo. He should have known that the police would never allow this sort of thing. A policeman approached Jimmy and told him he ought to have gone along a side-street as Jumbo was holding up the traffic. Though Jimmy agreed to go at once, Jumbo refused to move. Fifteen policemen had to push very hard to get him off the main street. The police had a difficult time, but they were most amused. “Jumbo must weigh a few tons”, said a policeman afterwards, “so it was fortunate that we didn’t have to carry him. Of course, we should arrest him, but as he has a good record, we shall let him off this time.”
1. Someone sat on my hat. 2. My hat was sat on. 3. George and I placed in the same class. 4. Someone placed George and me in the same class. 5. Cars kill people on the roads every day. 6. People are killed on the roads every day. 7. This book was first published in 1975. 8. They first published this book in 1975. 9. I am very interested in chess. 10. In museum visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits. 11. They will give you the answer next week. 12. Chairs are usually made of wood.
Model: They offered him interesting work.
He was offered interesting work.
Interesting work was offered (to) him.
When Elvis Presley died on the16-th August, 1977, radio and television programmes all over the world were interrupted to give the news of his death. President Carter was asked to declare a day of national mourning, Carter said, ”Elvis Presley changed the face of American popular culture … He was unique and irreplaceable.” Eighty thousand people attended his funeral. The streets were jammed with cars and Elvis Presley films were shown on television, and his records were played on the radio all day. In the year after his death, 100 million Presley LPs were sold. He died from Heart attack. He had been working too much for several years. He left all his money to his only daughter Lisa
Maria Presley. She became one of the richest people in the world when she was only nine years old.
Note: LP=Long Playing – большой диск.
GRAMMAR: Some, any, no.
Progressive Tenses (Active, Passive).
1. There is some news for you. 2. Somebody has locked their door. 3. We see some people in the street. 4. There is something new for you in this book. 5. Somebody has lost a key. 6. He has bought some milk.
She is preparing her lessons now.
She was preparing her lessons when we came to see her.
She will be preparing all the evening tomorrow.
The work is being done now and soon it will be finished.
The work was being done all the evening yesterday.
- What you (to do) when I (to telephone) you yesterday?
- I (to read) an English book. I (to read) English every day. When I (to read) my younger sister (to prepare) her lessons in Mathematics.
It (to be) half past eleven in the morning. Mrs Fielding (to be) in the kitchen. She (to make) dinner for her family. Her husband (to be) at work, but he (not to work) just now. He (to have) coffee in the factory canteen.
GRAMMAR: Perfect Tenses (Active, Passive).
1. Have you ever seen this picture? 2. He was seen to run along the street. 3. No mistakes have been made. 4. This parts will have to be replaced. 5. He hasn’t yet listened to this tape.
1. This doctor has to take part in the conference. 2. We shall have some interesting work. 3. The text has been examined. 4. Having written translation I gave in to the teacher. 5. He has been here since 10 o’clock.
1. We have seen him already. 2. They had reached the station by 3 o’clock yesterday. 3. The fire has caused considerable damage. 4. John will have received the papers by tomorrow.
It has been proved by many experiments that when energy is changed from one from to another the whole amount of energy remains unchanged. The cyclotron has been of great help to development of human knowledge in the field of nuclear physics. In the cyclotron particles of energy up to a billion electron volts and more have been achieved. Engineers had carried out experimental work long before they proceeded with the design.
GRAMMAR: The Participle.
Types of Questions.
Felt a little depressed I was cheered up by supper: spaghetti with a little butter and dried basil. (Basil is of course the king of herbs). Then spring cabbage cooked slowly with dill. Boiled onions served with bran, herbs, soya oil and tomatoes, with one egg beaten in. With these a slice or two of cold tinned corned beef.
My father was a quite bookish man. I can picture him how bending down to pick up a spider on a piece of paper. I was his comrade, companion. I always felt that we were in the same boat, adventuring along together. Reading the same books we always discussed them. I can remember him, when he was fatally ill, reading “Treasure Island” with a magnifying glass. I was a docile quite loving child.
Daddy: Mother’s in the Maternity Home.
Mary: What’s a Maternity home?
Daddy: It’s a nursing home for women who’re going to have babies.
Mary: My Mummy’s going to have a baby, Isn’t she?
Daddy: Yes, Mary.
Mary: Will it be a little boy or a little girl?
Daddy: We don’t know yet. Which do you want, a sister or a brother?
Mary: I think I want a little sister. When shall we know?
Daddy: Can’t be sure, Mary. Tomorrow, perhaps, or perhaps the day after tomorrow.
GRAMMAR: The Infinitive.
Paul offered to accompany his mother and very soon found a little gate, and soon were in a broad green alley of the wood. In front was a cluster of low red farm buildings. It was very still. They were already near enough to see a pond under overhanging oak-trees and some cows in the shade. Mother and son went into the small garden. By the open door were some floury loaves, put out to cool. A hen was just coming to peck them. In a minute a small frail woman appeared. “Oh!” she exclaimed. “I am glad to see you. It’s so lost up here, we have no one talk to”.
Philip heard the front door shut and saw the butter Baines turn back into the dark nearby hall Philip stood in front of the nursery door, listening until he heard the taxi motor вшу out along the street. His parents were gone for a fortnight’s holiday. He seemed to be alone in the house although he was staying with Baines and Mrs. Baines. He appeared be a stranger in his home because he could go to any room and all the rooms were empty.
1.IF YOU GO TO ENGLAND
One of these days you may find it possible to visit England. The guide who will show you around the city will tell you about two great mistortunes that befell England in the 17th population and the Great Fire (1996) just a year later when 3000 houses and nearly all churches were destroyed in the flames.
You will be shown lots of historical monuments, places of interest, wonderful parks, museums which you will admire. You may be taken to Oxford or Cambridge as well.
But if you are inquisitive enough you won’t be satisfied until you see people’s London. The trip on the deck or a bus will show you that London is dirty and ugly as well as beautiful and wonderful. You will see happy children with their well-dressed mothers walking in Kensington Gardens and little children playing among rubbish heaps on empty grounds.
You will be able to see the elegant crowd coming out of the Hey-market and watch an artist who paints in coloured chalks right on the pavement. Beside the picture there is a hat and the words: “Ladies and gentlemen! A penny is enough. Thank you kindly”.
Begging is forbidden in London, you know. But one can sell matches or any small things, or draw pictures on the pavement.
After your visit to London you will say that London, indeed, is the city of contrasts.
2. ENGLISH PEOPLE AS THEY ARE.
One of the most striking features of English life is the self-discipline and courtesy of people of all classes. There is little noisy behavior and practically no loud disputing in the street. People do not rush excitedly for seats in buses or trains but take their seats in queues at bus stops in a quiet and orderly manner.
Englishmen are naturally polite and are never tired in saying “Thank you”, “I’m sorry”, “Bag your pardon”. If you follow anyone who is entering a building or a room, he will hold a door open for you. Many foreigners have commented on a remarkable politeness of the English people.
English people don’t like displaying their emotions even in dangerous and tragic situations and ordinary people seem to remain go-od-tempered and cheerful under difficulties. The Englishman does not like any boasting or showing off in manners, dress or speech. Sometimes he conceals his knowledge: a linguist, for example, may not mention his understanding of a foreigner’s language.
The Englishman prefers his own house to an apartment in a block of flats because he doesn’t wish his doing be over looked by his neighbours. “An Englishman’s house in his castle”.
Many Englishmen are very good to their wives at home. They help their wives in many ways. They clean the windows when they are at home on Saturday afternoon. They often wash up the dishes after supper in the evening.
Sunday is a very quiet day in London. All the shops are closed and so are the theatres and most of the cinemas. Londoners like to get out of town on Sundays. The sea is not far – only fifty or sixty miles away and people like to go down to the sea in summer or somewhere to the country for skiing in winter. These are some English customs.
3. A FEW FACTS FROM THE HISTORY OF BIG CITIES.
London, the capital of Great Britain, is one of the oldest cites in Europe. When Julius Caesar crossed the English Channel and invaded Britain as far as the Thames in the middle of the first century B.C., people had already settled there and were living on both sides of the river.
Like many other very old cities, London was never planned. It grew around two centres – a fort the Romans built on one bank. As time went by, The place round the Roman fort developed into the city of London, the country’s business centre; the abbey is now known as Westminster Abbey.
By the middle of the first century A.D. London had already been in existence for about a hundred years. Roads leading to other towns had changed into streets, market grounds became squares. London was growing …
In the year of 1147 in a part of the world Londoners had never heard of, a town was founded by a prince on a site which he close for its beauty and convenient location in the
middle of a magnificent forest on the bank of a river. The river gave its name to the city which later became the capital of the Russian state.
Like London Moscow was never planned. It grew up around its centre which had been surrounded by a wooden wall. The wooden wall was later replaced by a brick one, and palaces, cathedrals and churches were built inside it forming now what is known as the Kremlin.
4. ENGLAND NEEDS MORE RAIN!
Those who complain about our weather may be surprised to learn that there are some people in England who want more rain, in fact need it badly. We certainly have more than many other countries, but we don’t get as much as we need. Two or three weeks in the summer without rain and we have problems. The trouble is partly that the rain falls in the wrong place, partly that we can’t store enough of it, and partly that we use much more than we need.
Most of Britain’s rain falls in Wales and Scotland; it isn’t there but in the drier South East England and Midlands that we need it. Of course we store this water and send it to other parts of the country. Birmingham, for example, the second largest city in England, gets all its water from North Wales. But our reservoirs are now a hundred years old and need to be much larger. Both an home and in our factories we use much more water than we did a hundred years ago. It takes 100.000 gallons of water to make one car. Factories at least pay for the water they use, but in our homes we only pay to have water. After that we can use as much as we want. We can use the washing-machine every day, leave the tap running while we wash our hands, or even forget about the leaking tap in the bathroom. Apparently we lose every day through leaking taps, enough water for the whole of London. Finally what we have felt in our rivers we make so dirty that we can’t use it.
The answer to this problem isn’t simple. First we must find a way of keeping our water clean. Factories needn’t use so much; they must learn to re-use a little. In this way the British Steel Corporation already uses much less than it did. New reservoirs need building and, because England is small, these need to be in the mouths of rivers. Finally we must begin to take water from under the Cotswold Hills and study new ways of using water from the sea.
5. A CONFUSING LANGUAGE.
When I arrived in England, I couldn’t speak a word of English, so I decided to take some lessons.
My teacher told us that we had to be careful as, in many ways, English is a confusing language. Many a trap lies waiting for the unsuspecting student. At first, I look his advise with a pinch of salt but I was soon to learn by bitter experience.
I remember, only too well, an evening I spent in a local pub, I had been going there three or four times a week and had communicated with the barman by means of sign
language. One evening, I look the bull by the horns and decided to speak. I look a deep breath and ordered as clearly as I could: “A bear, please”.
The barman couldn’t believe his ears. He hesitated for a moment and then answered: “Listen to me, young man. You’re in pub not at zoo!”
I didn’t understand him but I realized from his voice that he was none too pleased. I would have gone without my beer that evening if a kind Englishman hadn’t intervened. He took me by the arm and led me to his table. Over a drink, he explained my silly mistake. He was very friendly and helpful but talked very quickly. After a few drinks, he became very patriotic and talked about the Queen and the Monarchy. I didn’t understand half of what he said but I nodded sympathetically from time to time. Soon I began to feel a little tipsy and thought that this would be a good opportunity to practice my English.
“God shave the Queen!”, I explained. There was a deathly silence. Then he began to go pale. He stood up, looked me up and down and then turned round sharply and walked away leaving me with my mouth hanging open and my glass hanging in the air.
“See you tomorrow,” I said weakly. But he had gone. I still feel mesirable when I think of that day and know now that my teacher was right and I was altogether wrong.
6. THE CLOTHES OF A LADY.
Do you know how to wear clothes? The first impression that we make upon others depend upon what we wear and how we wear it.
The woman who knows how to wear clothes is like a stage director who skillfully presents herself.
Let’s speak about clothes for the Business Woman. The first requirement is neatness. The unfailing directions for clothes worn in an office are that they be tailor-made, smart to the least degree and in perfect taste, but in nothing conspicuous. Above all, avoid wearing clothes that need constant arranging.
Also all, wear clothes that properly cover you. Conspicuous as well as transparent clothes are entirely out of place in business. In hot weather very short sleeves are permissible, but not cut out armholes or low back.
Neat, beautifully done hair but no little-girl effect of hair hanging loose, is in best taste.
One important accessory for beautiful business clothes is a pair of plain sensible shoes, designed to give proper support to the foot. High-heeled, fancy sandals and slippers not only are inappropriate and extravagant, but ruinous to any foot that must be much stood upon.
7. ON LONDON PUBS.
The English pub (short for “public house”) or “the local” is a significant national institution. The pub represents far more than merely a place in which to drink. For millions of Englishmen it is a regular lunchtime meeting place, a club, a debating chamber, a television on lounge, a show place and a refuge from the family.
Pubs are quite respectable institutions where women come unescorted.
London pubs serve almost any kind of known drink but their stock-in-trade is beer. As for food, most pubs serve lunches but some offer more substantial meals.
Pubs are open from 11.30 a.m., than from 5.30 p.m. (7 p.m. on Sundays) to 11 p.m. (10.30 p.m. on Sundays).
8. OUT OF WORK.
In Britain a lot of people are out of work. Tracey Chapman is 18, and she left school a year ago. She lives in the North East an area of high youth unemployment. She hasn’t been able to find a job yet.
“My dad doesn’t understand. He started working in a steel mill when he was 15. Things are different now, but he thinks I should start bringing some money. Oh, I get my unemployment benefit, but that isn’t much and I’m fed up with queuing for it every Thursday. I hate having to ask my mum and dad for money. Oh, my mum gives me a couple of pounds for tights now and then, but she can’t stand seeing me at home all day. I’ve almost given up tired of looking through the “Situations Vacant” column. There are 50 applications for every job. I was interested in being a dentist’s receptionist because I like meeting people, but now I’d like take any job at all. People ask me why I don’t move to London, but I don’t want to leave my family and friends. Anyway, I’m scared of living on my own in a big city”
9. NEW YEAR IN ENGLAND.
The most common type of celebration is a New Year party, either a family party or one arranged by a group of young people. This usually begins at about eight o’clock and goes on until the early hours of the morning. Sometimes the hosts make big bowls of punch which consists of wine, spirits, fruit juice and water in varying proportions. There is usually a buffet supper of cold meat, pies, sandwiches, cakes and biscuits.
At midnight the radio is turned on, so that everyone can hear the chimes of Big Ben and on the hour a toast is drunk to the New Year. Then the party goes on. Another popular way of celebrating the New Year is to go a New Year’s dance. Most hotels and dance halls hold a special dance on New Year’s Eve. The hall is decorated there are several different bands and the atmosphere is very festive.
The most famous celebration is in London round the statue of Eros in Piccadilly Circus where crowds gather and sing to welcome the New Year. In Trafalgar Square there is also a big crowd and someone usually falls into the fountain.
Those who have no desire or opportunity to celebrate the New Year themselves can sit and watch other people celebrating on television.
January 1st, New Year’s Day, is a public holiday, some people send New Year cards and give presents but it is not a widespread custom. This is the traditional time or making New Year resolutions, for example to give smoking or to get up earlier. However, these are generally more talked about than put into practice.
10. DETAILS OF SHAKESPEARE’S EARLY LIFE ARE SCANTY.
He was the son of a prosperous merchant of Stratford-upon-Avon, and tradition has it that he was born on 23rd April 1565; records show that he was baptized three days later. It is likely that he attended the local grammar school, but he had no university education. Of his early career there is no record, though John Aubrey states that he was, for a time, a country schoolmaster. How he became involved with the stage is equally uncertain, but he was sufficiently established as a playwright 1592 to be criticized in print. He was a leading member of the Lord Chamberlain’s Company, which became the King’s Men on the accession of James I in 1603. Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway in 1582, by whom had two daughters and a son, Hamlet, who died in childhood. Towards the end of his life he loosened his ties with London, and retired to New Place, His substantial property in Stratford that he had bought in 1597. He died on 23rd April 1616 aged 52, and is buried in Trinity Church, Stratford.
11. THE THEATRE IN THEDAYS OF SHAKESPEARE.
It did not look like our modern theatres. It was a high round building without any except over the stage and people sat and stood around the stage right under the sky. So the people did not always enjoy the play, it was not easy to stand in the rain, for example. In late autumn and early spring it was very cold. In winter the theatres were closed. As there was not artificial light in those days, the plays could not take place at night or even in the evening. So they took place in the day-time, between one and three o’clock in the afternoon. So as to show to everybody that a play was going on at the theatre, a flag was put up above the building. Then there was no scenery either good or bad, and the public was informed about the place where the play was going on by a paper put up in such a way that the people could easily read it. There it was written: field, sea coast, wood and so on. Sometimes the actors told the public where they were. There were no actresses in those days. Women were not allowed to work in theatres. All the parts of girls and women were played by boys. A boy first played the parts of women and when he grew up he started playing men’s parts at the same theatre. The actors were often partners in the theatre business. Shakespeare was one of the partners in the theatre where he played and for which he wrote his dramas. This was the famous Globe. Many tragedies and comedies of Shakespeare are acted in the theatres of our country and some of them have even been
filmed. His tragedies and comedies were a success almost from the very beginning and soon became quite famous throughout the whole world.
12. CONAN DOYLE.
Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, was born in Edinburgh in the family of a civil servant. He studied medicine at Edinburgh University. In 1881 he received his Bachelor of Medicine degree.
Twice he went on long voyages as ship’s doctor, first to the Arctic and then on a steamer bound to the West Coast of Africa.
This gave him material for “Stark Munto Letters” and the “Captain of the Polestar”. “The Adventures the Sherlock Holmes” – each story complete in itself – began to appear in the Strand Magazine. They were written during his business hours as an oculist waiting for patients who did not come. He invented a detective, Sherlock Holmes, and a comarade to join him in his exploits – Dr. Watson.
13. DON’T WORRY! TAKE IT EASY! CHEER UP! WHERE THERE’S A WILL, THERE’S A WAY!
We say all these things to balance our emotions and gain strength. But it is not as easy as it seems. So, what’s the answer? We cannot go and live on a desert island. There are lots of things we can do of course. We can take more exercise. We can eat less, smoke less, we can have a well-organized rest.
But perhaps the most important thing we can do is to learn to relax. Stress grows very slowly. It is made up of all the little things that make us tense, day after day, year after year. Every time we relax, every time we put our feet up, every time we have a cup of tea and a chat with an old friend we take away some of the tension that causes stress.
Americans worry about relaxing. They take classes to learn how to relax. They read books that tell them how to “take it easy”. Relaxing is a multi-dollar industry in the U.S.A. So why not master this skill and do it on your own (without paying much money)?
But before you start think of what doctors say nowadays, “Too much relaxation is bad for you”.
Cricket is often called the English national sport, though it is not as popular as football. To many foreigners cricket appears a slow and rather boring game, but in fact it requires a lot of muscle and a quick eye.
The players don’t all play at the same time, there are eleven players on each side, and the players on the side go and play in pairs, while eleven on the other side are trying to beat them. It is eleven against two all the time.
That sounds rather unfair. Cricket’s supposed to be the fairest game in the world. The players must never lose their temper or complain, even if there has been a mistake which is nit in their favor. Cricket’s a good game for training people in courteous behavior; teaches them how to lose a game without losing their temper and to avoid selfish actions or mean tricks.
One man once fought an army. Ancient historians tell us that the man was old, over seventy. The army was that of the strongest power in the world – Rome itself!
But the old man, a Greek, held the Roman army off for nearly three years – and almost won. The old man was Archimedes of Syracuse, the greatest scientist of the ancient world.
The roman army knew his reputation very well. Legends say that when curved mirrors were set up on the walls of Syracuse, the attacking Roman ships caught fire. It was not magic – it was Archimedes. When huge claws were extended outwards on beams, ships were caught, raised, and overturned. Again it was not magic – it was Archimedes.
It is said that when the Romans saw rope or wood above the walls of Syracuse they hoisted their sails and ran. For Archimedes was different from the Greek scientists before him, he went beyond them in imagination and daring. He denied for example, that the sends of the sea were to many to be counted, and he devised a method to count them.
Требования к умениям и навыкам учащихся:
Использовать приобретённые знания и умения в практической деятельности.