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PLAN OF STUDIES FOR THE 3RD TERM


  1. PHONETIC EXERCISES 2

  2. TERM TOPICS «RUSSIA», «BIYSK» 7

  3. COUNTRY STUDIES «ABRAHAM LINCOLN», «ELVIS PRESLEY» 12

  4. BUSINESS ENGLISH (ENVELOPES AND ADDRESSES) 16

  5. SPOKEN ENGLISH – TOPIC 1 20

  6. PROFESSIONAL TEXTS (The Art of Thinking,

Curiosity as an Incentive to Thinking, Discussion as a Stimulus of the Mind) 22

  1. GRAMMAR MATERIALS (SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL) 28



  1. PHONETIC EXERCISES


Правила чтения гласных букв в разных типах слогов

БУКВЫ

I тип

II тип

III тип

IV тип

A

[ei]

NAME



[æ]

CAT



[a:]

CAR



[εə]

CARE



E

[ i: ]

ME



[e]

PEN



[ə:]

HER



[iə]

HERE



I, Y

[ai]

MY, HI



[i]

SIT


[ə:]

GIRL


[aiə]

FIRE



O


[ou ]

NO



[o]

NOT



[o: ]

OR

[o:]

MORE



U

[ju:]

USE

[Λ]

BUT



[ə:]

FUR



[juə]

PURE




Правила чтения гласных в 4 типах слогов




Открытый

Закрытый

Гласная + r

Гласная + re




[eı]

[æ]

[a:]

[έǝ]

A a

name

late


game

plane


fate

tram

map


stand

plan


factory

hard

dark


start

party


farm

share

rare


care

compare


prepare




[i:]

[e]

[з:]


[ıǝ]

E e

she

we

be



week

repeat


get

egg


fell

let


ten

her

term


verb

serve


person

here

mere


sphere

period


material




[aı]

[ı]

[з:]

[aıǝ]

I i /

Y y

time

type


my

fly


fine

ill

wish


milk

system


syntax

sir

bird


girl

dirty


byrn

fire

lyre


hire

tired





[ju:]

[^]

[з:]

[juǝ]

U u

use

student


union

human


pupil

under

fun


uncle

butter


supper

burn

burst


turkey

return


furniture

pure

cure


during

curious


secure


[ǝ u]


[o]

[o:]

[o:]

O o

home

hope


note

nose


smoke

not

clock


fond

dog


shop

nor

north


sport

lord


short

more

shore


explore

before


store


Ex. 1. Прочтите слова, обращая внимание на тип слога:

blame, melt, be, had, five, my, run, bite, best, spoke, stock, hill, meet, cut, send, bed, style, side, plan, miss, bitter, typist, nut, use, us, plane, lake, lye, fat, biter, better, mist, six, style, tube, dust, lunch, space, bottle, rise, raze, symbol, mutton, vote, office, luck, bad, long, no, note, just, club, shelf, summer, subject, pencil.



Ex. 2. Прочтите слова, обращая внимание на чтение гласных в ударных открытых и закрытых слогах перед r:

star, pure, birch, hire, turn, short, severe, born, birth, lyre, care, prepare, torn, spare, parent, far, person, mere, merge, bar, cure, wire, admire, bare, shore, lord, north, bird, hurt, verse, tired, term, forty, hard, hare, rare, core, care, large, share, harm, spur, girl, dirty, satire, fork, charm, scare, morning, first, turtle, more, skirt.


Правила чтения сочетаний гласных

Буква

Буквосочетания

Звук

Примеры

A a

a + ir


[ǝ]

air, hair, chair, pair, fair

ay, ai

[ei]

play, pay, say, day, today, aim, rain, paint, main, nail

a + n

a + f


a + s+согласная

a + th


[α:]

plant, branch, can’t

after, craft

grass, class, fast, task

path, rather, father


a + l

a + ll


a + lk

[o:]


all, ball, tall, call, small

chalk, talk, walk



w + ar

[wo]

war, warm, award, warn, reward

w(h) + a

[o:]

was, what, want, wash, watch

aw

[o:]

law, saw, draw, strawberry

a + nge

[ei]

change, strange, exchange

au(gh)

[o:]

author, autumn, daughter

E e


ee, ea

[i:]

see, meet, tree, green, street, feel, sea, meat, tea, team, peace

ea + d, th, lth
но

[e]

head, dead, bread, death, health

[i:]

read, lead, reader, leader

ea + r + согл.

[ǝ:]

earn, earth, early, learn

ear, eer

[iǝ]

hear, near, ear, clear, dear, fear

ew

[ju:]

new, knew, newspaper, few

ei

[i:]

ceiling, receive, deceive, seize

er (в суффиксе)

[ǝ]

worker, driver, painter

ey (под ударением)



[e]

they, grey, obey но key [ki:]

ey (в неударном слоге)

[i:]

money, hockey, trolley

Ii


ie (перед согласной)

[i:]

field, piece, niece, brief, chief

ie (в конце слова)

[ai]

lie, tie, die

igh

[ai]

night, fight, high, sigh, sight, flight

i+nd

но

[ai]

kind, find, mind, blind

[i]

wind, window

i+ld



[ai]

mild, child но children

Oo

oo+n, l

[u:]

moon, soon, too, spoon, cool, fool

oo+k

[u]

look, book, took, cook

оu

но

[au]

house, round, out, about

[u]

should, could

ough+t

[o:]

bought, thought, fought, brought


oa

[ou]

coat, boat, soap, road, toast

ow (в середине слова)

[au]

town, brown, down, power

ow (в конце слова)
но

[ou]

window, slow, row, snow, grow

[au]

now, how

oy

oi


[oi]

boy, toy, noise, voice, soil

choice, coin, boil



Oo

o+ld

[ou]

old, cold, sold, hold, told, bold

our

[o:]

four, court, course, your

our, ower

[auǝ]

our, hour, shower, flower, tower, power

o+m, m+o

o+n


o+v

o+th



[Λ]

some, come, among, money

son, won, wonderful, front

glove, love, lovely

mother, brother, other


[u]

prove, move, movement, improvement

ous

[ǝ]

famous, dangerous, various

or

[ǝ]

doctor, tractor, conductor

Uu

ue

[ju:]

due, sue, hue

после r, l

[u:]

true, blue

ure (в открытом слоге после s )


[uǝ]

sure, surely но sugar

u (в закрытом слоге после f, p, b)

[u]

full, push, bush, bull

(в открытом слоге после r, j)

[u:]

rule, june, jubilee, rumour

Yy

перед гласной в начале слова

[j]

yes, yet, year, yesterday

в безударном положении на конце слова

[i]

city, money, holiday, lady, lazy, fifty, seventy












Правила чтения согласных

Буква

Алфавитное

чтение

Звук

Правило

чтения

Примеры

Bb

[bi:]

[b]




Big, battle, bath, birch

Cc
ck

ch


[si:]

[s]

[k]


[k]

1.[t∫]


2.[k]

3. [∫]


Перед e, i, y

В остальных случаях


Английские слова

Греческие слова

Французские слова


Ice, decide, cycle

Carry, coal, cut, act, music

Back, lack, sick

Champion, change, teach

School, character

Machine


Dd

[di:]

[d]




Dialogue, difficult, different

Ff

[ef]

[f]





Flower, floor, fly, fool

Gg
gh

[dgi:]

[dg]

[g]


Перед e, i, y

В остальных случаях

Не читается


Gin, page, age, gentle

Big, god, gossip, go, glad

Right, taught, brought


Hh

[eit∫]

[h]




Hand, hook, happy, handle

Jj

[dgei]

[dg]




Jump, judge, Jack, jam

Kk

kn

[kei]

[k]

[n]





Kill, kind, king, king

Knife, knee, know



Ll

[el]

[l]




Late, law, learn, leg, light

Mm

[em]

[m]




Moment, mummy, modern

Nn

ng

nk

[en]

[n]

[ŋ]


[ŋk]


Nest, number, nut, nurse

Long, taking, wing

Bank, blank, ink, pink


Pp

ph

[pi:]

[p]

[f]





Pole, practice, public

Photo, phone, physics



Qq

[kju:]

[kw]




Quite, quick, question

Rr

[a:]

[r]




Broke, run, red, tree read

Ss


sh

-ssion

[es]

[s]
[z]

[ Ʒ ]


[∫]

[∫n]


1. После глухих согласных, в

начале слова

2. между гласными, после звонких согласных

3. перед –ual, ure, ion




Sad, send, meets, gas
Stones, styles, music

Usual, pleasure, division

She, shake, ship, dish

Discussion, session



Tt

th
-ture

-tion

[ti:]

[t]

[θ]


[ð]

[t∫e]


[∫n]

Смысловые слова

Служебные слова


Ten, test, tell, twenty

Thick, three, thin, teeth

These, they, with, then

Nature, structure, future

Nation, station, translation

Vv


[vi:]

[v]




Five, voice, vote

Ww

wh

wh

wr

[dΛbl ju:]

[w]

[w]


[h]

[r]

По общему правилу

Перед o



Water, we, well, wish

White, why, when, which

Who, whose, whom

Write


Xx

[eks]

[gz]

[ks]


Перед ударной гласной

В остальных случаях



Exam, example, exist

Text, six, excellent



Zz

[zed]

[z]




Zoo, zero



  1. TERM TOPICS «RUSSIA», «BIYSK»


Read the following words by their transcription:
mysterious[mis`tiəriəs] era[`iərə] civilization[,sivilai`zei∫ən] strength[streŋθ] Khanate[`ka:neit] Senate[`senit] exile[`eksail] provincial[prə`vin∫əl] merchant[`mə:t∫ənt] enterprise[`entəpraiz] effort[`efət] modernized[`modənaizd] whole[houl] soldier[`soldgə] furnace[`fə:nis]

BIYSK 1

Biysk is the oldest city of the Altay territory. The pages of its nearly 300-year-old history are full of most interesting events – sometimes dramatic, sometimes mysterious.

Biysk was founded in the period of great changes in the Peter I era, when Russia was opening up to the European civilization on the one hand and increasing its strength in the East, on the other. For this reason Peter the Great gave an order to erect a fortification on the confluence of the Biya and Katun rivers to divide possessions of the Russian Empire and the Eastern Mongolian Khanate.

On July, 18th, 1709 Russian Cossacks completed the construction of a small wooden fortress by the source of the river Ob. The fortress was called the Bikatun one.

In 1757 it was in the Biysk fortress where the elders of some Altaic tribes signed the Treaty stating Russian naturalization of the Altai native population.

In 1782 by the Senate's order the fortress was granted the town status.

In 1804 when Biysk became one of the 8 district centers of the Tomsk province it got its town emblem.

In the beginning of the 19th century the tzarist government began to use the fortress as an exile place.

In the middle of the 19th century Biysk was a typical provincial town of pre-revolutionary Russia. It was built on with one-storey wooden houses. 5000 people lived here. With the development of capitalism the town became the greatest centre of transit trade with Mongolia and China. It was in Biysk where Chuysky Highway began. The local merchants began to invest their money into industry and transport.

Gradually Biysk was changing: industrial enterprises, banks and beautiful stone buildings were built, electricity and telephone appeared. In 1915 Biysk was connected with Barnaul and Novosibirsk by a railroad.

During the post-Civil War period Biysk grew considerably thanks to heroic efforts and hardships of its people. Old factories were modernized, new plants were built and the whole network of schools and hospitals was organized.

At the Second World War more than 38.000 of Biysk soldiers fought in famous Siberian divisions, they fought for Moscow and Stalingrad, liberated Europe, took Berlin. 12 industrial enterprises were evacuated to Biysk and by the end of 1941 the first products such as furnaces, boilers, trench mortars, uniform were sent to the front.

After the War Biysk became the second largest industrial and cultural center of the Altai region after Barnaul. Many outstanding people lived in Biysk: V.V Bianky, Mukhachyov, Savchenko, Vasilyev, Maximova, and others.

Vocabulary:
to be full of –быть полным to be founded- быть основанным

on the one hand- с одной стороны on the other hand- с другой стороны

to increase- увеличивать reason- причина

fortification- укрепление fortress- крепость

confluence-слияние to divide possessions- разделять владения

to complete- заканчивать, завершать tribe- племя

treaty- договор naturalization- вхождение в состав

order- приказ exile- ссылка

transit trade- транзитная торговля merchant- купец

enterprise- предприятие to appear- появляться

effort- усилие hardships- лишения

boiler-котел furnace-печь



trench mortar-миномет outstanding- выдающийся


Read the following words by their transcription:
Architectural[,a:ki`tekt∫ərəl] centuries[`sent∫uriz] valuable[`væljuəbl] considerable[kən`sidərəbl] worth[wə:θ] quiet[kwaiət] pedestal[`pedistl] anniversary[,æni`və:səri] icon[`aikon] mansion[`mæn∫ən] rare[rεə] possess[pə`zes] archaeological[,a:kiə`lodgikəl] ethnographical[,eθnou`græfikəl] exhibit[ig`zibit] culture[`kΛlt∫ə] geography[dgi`ogrəfi] neighboring[`neibəriŋ] war[wo:]

Places of Interest of Biysk (2)
Biysk is rich in architectural monuments of the XIX-XX centuries: dwelling houses, shops and churches. There are 40 architectural and historical monuments of federal and territorial importance. They are extremely valuable because a considerable part of old constructions have been preserved. Most sights worth seeing in Biysk are concentrated in its Old Centre, which is the actually the heart of the city.

The cannons of the Biysk Fortress. In the quiet square opposite the City Park in the Old Centre there are two cannons to remind of the times of the Biysk Fortress. These twelve –pound cannons were cast in 1402 in Kamensk. There were brought to Biysk in 1756 and set up to protect the fortress. In 1848 when the Biysk fortress was abolished, the cannons were taken away. Nearly all of them were sent for remelting. Two cannons were placed on the pedestal to commemorate the 200th anniversary of Biysk in June, 1909.


The Uspenskaya Church is a construction of great artistic value situated at the bank of the River Biya. The most distinctive trait of the Church is its silver domes which look especially striking against the dark skies. The inside of the Church is impressive too: the walls and the inner part of the dome bear beautiful holy paintings. There’s a priceless collection of icons there, the most famous of which is the Icon of Father, Son and Holy Spirits.

The Drama Theatre or the People’s House occupies a beautiful mansion in the Old Centre on Sovetskaya Street.

The Bianky Museum of Regional Ethnography is a red-brick building located not far from the bridge across the Biya. It is named after Vitaly Bianky who came to Biysk and stayed here for some time to study the town and the Altay Territory. The Department of Nature is very popular. Its exposition presents common and rare animals and birds found in the Altai Territory: marals (Siberian stags), bears, wolves, ulars, kabargas, and what not.

The Museum of Regional Studies is situated in the former Asanov’s Mansion. The Museum possesses a priceless collection of archaeological and ethnographical exhibits devoted to the history and culture of the Altay Territory and its people. There are six departments and seven halls in the Museum. There is a scientific library of 15500 volumes of books on botany, geography, zoology, philosophy, linguistics and other subjects. The Museum is believed to be one of the best in Siberia.

The Memorial is found in a quiet square not far from the Drama Theater. It was constructed to commemorate the heroes from Biysk and neighboring villages perished in the World War II. The names of more than 9700 Biysk citizens are written down in the Memory Book of the Altay Territory.

Vocabulary
To dwell-жить distinctive trait-отличительная черта Valuable-ценный dome-купол

Considerable-значительный look-выглядеть

To preserve- сохранять striking-поразительный, замечательный

Worth-стоить inside (inner)-внутри, внутренний

Cannon-пушка impressive-впечатляющий

Quiet-тихий, спокойный to bear-носить, содержать

To remind-напоминать holy-святой, священный

Pound- пуд mansion-особняк

To cast-отливать rare-редкий

To abolish-упразднять former-бывший

To remelt-переплавить to possess-владеть

To commemorate- чтить память exhibit-экспонат

Anniversary- годовщина, юбилей volume-том

Artistic-художественный neighboring-соседний

Bank-берег to perish-погибать в бою
Dialogue 1

BIYSK

- Excuse me, miss?

-Yes, what can I do for you?

- Sorry to bother you but I’m a foreigner in Biysk and I have several hours before my train starts. Is it possible to see anything of the town in this period?

- Well, yes, of course but not very much.

- What do you think I ought to see first?

- Well, our town is rather old and if you are interested in churches and historical places you should go to Uspenskaya church.

- Could you tell me how to get there?

- Uspenskaya church? Let me think now … Go along this road as far as “Kalinka” – that’s a large store. There’s a bus stop just there.

- And what bus must I take?

- The 23 and the 35.

- What stop must I go to?

- The centre.

- And what other places of interest should I see?

- Frankly speaking, there are not so many interesting places in our town. Do you like art galleries?

- Rather.

- Then why not go to the Exhibition Hall?

- Oh, you are so kind to me. Thank you very much.



- Don’t mention it. Good luck.

Dialogue 2

BIYSK


  • Hello, Olga! Today I am going to show you my native town, it’s Biysk.

  • Thank you very much. But I know something about Biysk.

  • Really? What?

  • Biysk was founded in 1709 and it was just a little wooden fortress.

  • Right! Biysk is the oldest city of the Altay territory. That’s why let’s start with the Old Center. We are going along Sovetskaya Street. Here you can see the building of the Ex-Siberian Trade Bank. The building was constructed in 1880 by the order of a famous woman-merchant. Her name is Morozova.

  • And I know that some faculties of Biysk State University are situated here. Will you show me them?

  • Let’s go through the Park. It’s the faculty of Physics and Maths.

  • In the past the gymnasium for noble ladies was here, wasn’t it?

  • Oh! I didn’t know about it. Look, near the faculty of Physics and Maths there is the faculty of Technology and Economics. But let’s go further.

  • What is it? Is it a church?

  • Yes, it is the Uspenskaya church. And there is a stadium near the church. Its name is Avangard.

  • And I know that not far from it there is a memorial. It was erected to commemorate the heroes from Biysk and neighboring villages perished in World War Two.

  • And further you can see the Drams Theatre. Its history began more than a hundred years ago. They say a merchant built it for an actress he was in love with. When she left him he near burnt it down.

  • And the last thing that I know is the Bianky Museum of Regional Ethnography. It’s named after Vitaliy Bianky who studied the town and the Altay Territory.

  • Perfect! I am deeply impressed! By the way, are you tired? Let’s go inside and look over the Department of Nature. And tomorrow we’ll continue our excursion about the town because there are still a lot of interesting places.

  • Oh, with great pleasure! Thanks a lot!


dialogue 1

Russia


  • Hello, how are you?

  • Hi, frankly speaking not very well. I have to write a report about Russia.

  • Really? But it is not very difficult. I can help you. What do you know?

  • Ok, first of all – Russia is one of the largest countries in the world.

  • Good! It is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. And Russia borders on Mongolia, China, Finland and Norway.

  • And do you know anything about mountains, rivers and lakes?

  • Of course! The main mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. The longest rivers are the Volga, the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena. And the largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal.

  • Have you heard that Baikal is the deepest lake in the world? And its water is the purest on earth!

  • Excellent! I hope you know the capital of Russia?

  • Sure! It’s Moscow! And the current population of Moscow is about 10 million people, and the population of Russia is more than 150 million people.

  • So, and now let’s speak about its political system. Russia is a presidential republic.

  • Yes, the president of Russia is Medvedev. He was elected by the people for 4 years. But Russia is also a parliamentary republic.

  • The government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The President controls each of them.

  • And I’ve read that the legislative power is exercised by the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers: the Council of Federation and the State Duma.

  • The executive power belongs to the Government, or the Cabinet of Ministers. The government is headed by the Prime Minister.
  • The judicial power belongs to the system of courts. It consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and other courts.


  • And I am sure that you know that the national symbol of Russia is a white-blue-and-red banner!

  • Thank you very much for this useful information!

  • Not at all. See you later, goodbye!

  • Bye-bye!

Dialogue 2

Russia

- Hello, Mike!

- Hi, Vic! Where have you been? I haven't seen you for ages.

- You know, ten years ago I left our country and lived in France. I worked there as an interpreter.

- Oh! Ten years! And how do you find our country now? It has greatly changed, hasn't it?

- Yes, of course. Everything has changed: state order, economy, press, education, everything, in short.

- You should understand, we live an absolutely new life. Our republics are foreign countries now. Moreover, they even have custom-houses on our frontier.

- Oh! And what's about your relatives? As far as I know, they live in Latvia. Do you visit them?

- I'm sorry, but I don’t go there now. It's very expensive. We only phone and write letters to each other.

- It's a pity. And how is your son? Не is about eighteen now, isn't he?

- Of course, he studies. He is a student of our Pedagogical Institute. But I must pay for his studies. Do you know that we have both paid and free education now? And besides, there are different types of schools: ordinary, private, gymnasiums, lyceums and others.

- But it's not bad, I think. You can choose any type you like according to your taste and money.

- Oh! Here is my bus. Come to my place and we'll continue our talk.

- With great pleasure. Good-bye!

- Good-bye!



  1. COUNTRY STUDIES

Text 1

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln is the most famous example of the "American dream". Many Americans think that in their country a man may rise from the lowest to the highest position in their land. That was exactly what Lincoln did.

He was born in 12 February, 1809 in a small farm in Kentucky. When Abraham was quite young, the family moved to the wild forest land of Indiana. He hardly had any education; he only learned to read and write and do simple arithmetic. In 1830 Abraham left his father's farm and went to Springfield, Illinois. There he became a clerk in a store and worked hard to improve his education. He studied law, history, philology, mathematics, and mechanics by himself. In 1836 he became a lawyer.

He entered politics, too, and in 1834 became a candidate to the Parliament of Illinois. He soon became a force in the political life. In 1842 he got married to Marry Todd. They lived happily and had four children. In 1847 he went as a Congressman to the National Assembly (National Parliament).


Slavery1 was then becoming a burning2 question in American politics. Many people in the Northern states waited to abolish3 it; the Southern states opposed the abolition. The Southerners said that it would mean economic strain for them. The reason was that the prosperity4 of the South was based on cotton-growing and only Afro-Americans worked there. The Southerners threatened5 that if the North didn't cease6 its fight against slavery, the Southern states would leave the Union. They wanted to form an independent "Confederacy".

In 1860 Lincoln was elected President of the USA. In 1861 seven states left the Union and elected their own President, Jefferson Davis. The Confederacy was formed.

Lincoln was strongly against slavery and even more strongly against the break-up of the Union. In April 1861 the American Civil War between the North and the South began.

At first the war went badly for the North. The Southerners headed by General Robert Lee and Colonel7 Jackson won some brilliant victories. But Lincoln did not lose courage8. On April, 9, 1865 General Lee surrendered9. The Civil War was over. Lincoln tried to convince10 former enemies that they should live in peace.

On April, 14, 1865 the President and his wife visited a theatre in Washington. During the performance Lincoln was shot by an actor who supported the Confederacy. The name of the assassin11 was John Booth. Abraham Lincoln died next morning.

People admire Lincoln for political moderation12. They admire him because he tried to preserve the nation. He is a symbol of American democracy.




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