|birmaga.ru|| 1 2 3
Curiosity as an Incentive to Thinking, Discussion as a Stimulus of the Mind) 22
Правила чтения гласных букв в разных типах слогов
Правила чтения гласных в 4 типах слогов
Ex. 1. Прочтите слова, обращая внимание на тип слога:
blame, melt, be, had, five, my, run, bite, best, spoke, stock, hill, meet, cut, send, bed, style, side, plan, miss, bitter, typist, nut, use, us, plane, lake, lye, fat, biter, better, mist, six, style, tube, dust, lunch, space, bottle, rise, raze, symbol, mutton, vote, office, luck, bad, long, no, note, just, club, shelf, summer, subject, pencil.
Ex. 2. Прочтите слова, обращая внимание на чтение гласных в ударных открытых и закрытых слогах перед r:
star, pure, birch, hire, turn, short, severe, born, birth, lyre, care, prepare, torn, spare, parent, far, person, mere, merge, bar, cure, wire, admire, bare, shore, lord, north, bird, hurt, verse, tired, term, forty, hard, hare, rare, core, care, large, share, harm, spur, girl, dirty, satire, fork, charm, scare, morning, first, turtle, more, skirt.
Правила чтения сочетаний гласных
Правила чтения согласных
Read the following words by their transcription:
mysterious[mis`tiəriəs] era[`iərə] civilization[,sivilai`zei∫ən] strength[streŋθ] Khanate[`ka:neit] Senate[`senit] exile[`eksail] provincial[prə`vin∫əl] merchant[`mə:t∫ənt] enterprise[`entəpraiz] effort[`efət] modernized[`modənaizd] whole[houl] soldier[`soldgə] furnace[`fə:nis]
BIYSK 1 Biysk is the oldest city of the Altay territory. The pages of its nearly 300-year-old history are full of most interesting events – sometimes dramatic, sometimes mysterious.
Biysk was founded in the period of great changes in the Peter I era, when Russia was opening up to the European civilization on the one hand and increasing its strength in the East, on the other. For this reason Peter the Great gave an order to erect a fortification on the confluence of the Biya and Katun rivers to divide possessions of the Russian Empire and the Eastern Mongolian Khanate.
On July, 18th, 1709 Russian Cossacks completed the construction of a small wooden fortress by the source of the river Ob. The fortress was called the Bikatun one.
In 1757 it was in the Biysk fortress where the elders of some Altaic tribes signed the Treaty stating Russian naturalization of the Altai native population.
In 1782 by the Senate's order the fortress was granted the town status.
In 1804 when Biysk became one of the 8 district centers of the Tomsk province it got its town emblem.
In the beginning of the 19th century the tzarist government began to use the fortress as an exile place.
In the middle of the 19th century Biysk was a typical provincial town of pre-revolutionary Russia. It was built on with one-storey wooden houses. 5000 people lived here. With the development of capitalism the town became the greatest centre of transit trade with Mongolia and China. It was in Biysk where Chuysky Highway began. The local merchants began to invest their money into industry and transport.
Gradually Biysk was changing: industrial enterprises, banks and beautiful stone buildings were built, electricity and telephone appeared. In 1915 Biysk was connected with Barnaul and Novosibirsk by a railroad.
During the post-Civil War period Biysk grew considerably thanks to heroic efforts and hardships of its people. Old factories were modernized, new plants were built and the whole network of schools and hospitals was organized.
At the Second World War more than 38.000 of Biysk soldiers fought in famous Siberian divisions, they fought for Moscow and Stalingrad, liberated Europe, took Berlin. 12 industrial enterprises were evacuated to Biysk and by the end of 1941 the first products such as furnaces, boilers, trench mortars, uniform were sent to the front.
After the War Biysk became the second largest industrial and cultural center of the Altai region after Barnaul. Many outstanding people lived in Biysk: V.V Bianky, Mukhachyov, Savchenko, Vasilyev, Maximova, and others.
on the one hand- с одной стороны on the other hand- с другой стороны
to increase- увеличивать reason- причина
fortification- укрепление fortress- крепость
confluence-слияние to divide possessions- разделять владения
to complete- заканчивать, завершать tribe- племя
treaty- договор naturalization- вхождение в состав
order- приказ exile- ссылка
transit trade- транзитная торговля merchant- купец
enterprise- предприятие to appear- появляться
effort- усилие hardships- лишения
trench mortar-миномет outstanding- выдающийся
Read the following words by their transcription:
Architectural[,a:ki`tekt∫ərəl] centuries[`sent∫uriz] valuable[`væljuəbl] considerable[kən`sidərəbl] worth[wə:θ] quiet[kwaiət] pedestal[`pedistl] anniversary[,æni`və:səri] icon[`aikon] mansion[`mæn∫ən] rare[rεə] possess[pə`zes] archaeological[,a:kiə`lodgikəl] ethnographical[,eθnou`græfikəl] exhibit[ig`zibit] culture[`kΛlt∫ə] geography[dgi`ogrəfi] neighboring[`neibəriŋ] war[wo:]
Places of Interest of Biysk (2)
Biysk is rich in architectural monuments of the XIX-XX centuries: dwelling houses, shops and churches. There are 40 architectural and historical monuments of federal and territorial importance. They are extremely valuable because a considerable part of old constructions have been preserved. Most sights worth seeing in Biysk are concentrated in its Old Centre, which is the actually the heart of the city.
The cannons of the Biysk Fortress. In the quiet square opposite the City Park in the Old Centre there are two cannons to remind of the times of the Biysk Fortress. These twelve –pound cannons were cast in 1402 in Kamensk. There were brought to Biysk in 1756 and set up to protect the fortress. In 1848 when the Biysk fortress was abolished, the cannons were taken away. Nearly all of them were sent for remelting. Two cannons were placed on the pedestal to commemorate the 200th anniversary of Biysk in June, 1909. The Memorial is found in a quiet square not far from the Drama Theater. It was constructed to commemorate the heroes from Biysk and neighboring villages perished in the World War II. The names of more than 9700 Biysk citizens are written down in the Memory Book of the Altay Territory.
To preserve- сохранять striking-поразительный, замечательный
Worth-стоить inside (inner)-внутри, внутренний
Quiet-тихий, спокойный to bear-носить, содержать
To remind-напоминать holy-святой, священный
Pound- пуд mansion-особняк
To cast-отливать rare-редкий
To abolish-упразднять former-бывший
To remelt-переплавить to possess-владеть
To commemorate- чтить память exhibit-экспонат
Anniversary- годовщина, юбилей volume-том
Bank-берег to perish-погибать в бою
- Excuse me, miss?
-Yes, what can I do for you?
- Sorry to bother you but I’m a foreigner in Biysk and I have several hours before my train starts. Is it possible to see anything of the town in this period?
- Well, yes, of course but not very much.
- What do you think I ought to see first?
- Well, our town is rather old and if you are interested in churches and historical places you should go to Uspenskaya church.
- Could you tell me how to get there?
- Uspenskaya church? Let me think now … Go along this road as far as “Kalinka” – that’s a large store. There’s a bus stop just there.
- And what bus must I take?
- The 23 and the 35.
- What stop must I go to?
- The centre.
- And what other places of interest should I see?
- Frankly speaking, there are not so many interesting places in our town. Do you like art galleries?
- Then why not go to the Exhibition Hall?
- Oh, you are so kind to me. Thank you very much.
- Don’t mention it. Good luck.
- Hello, Mike!
- Hi, Vic! Where have you been? I haven't seen you for ages.
- You know, ten years ago I left our country and lived in France. I worked there as an interpreter.
- Oh! Ten years! And how do you find our country now? It has greatly changed, hasn't it?
- Yes, of course. Everything has changed: state order, economy, press, education, everything, in short.
- You should understand, we live an absolutely new life. Our republics are foreign countries now. Moreover, they even have custom-houses on our frontier.
- Oh! And what's about your relatives? As far as I know, they live in Latvia. Do you visit them?
- I'm sorry, but I don’t go there now. It's very expensive. We only phone and write letters to each other.
- It's a pity. And how is your son? Не is about eighteen now, isn't he?
- Of course, he studies. He is a student of our Pedagogical Institute. But I must pay for his studies. Do you know that we have both paid and free education now? And besides, there are different types of schools: ordinary, private, gymnasiums, lyceums and others.
- But it's not bad, I think. You can choose any type you like according to your taste and money.
- Oh! Here is my bus. Come to my place and we'll continue our talk.
- With great pleasure. Good-bye!
Abraham Lincoln is the most famous example of the "American dream". Many Americans think that in their country a man may rise from the lowest to the highest position in their land. That was exactly what Lincoln did.
He was born in 12 February, 1809 in a small farm in Kentucky. When Abraham was quite young, the family moved to the wild forest land of Indiana. He hardly had any education; he only learned to read and write and do simple arithmetic. In 1830 Abraham left his father's farm and went to Springfield, Illinois. There he became a clerk in a store and worked hard to improve his education. He studied law, history, philology, mathematics, and mechanics by himself. In 1836 he became a lawyer.
He entered politics, too, and in 1834 became a candidate to the Parliament of Illinois. He soon became a force in the political life. In 1842 he got married to Marry Todd. They lived happily and had four children. In 1847 he went as a Congressman to the National Assembly (National Parliament).
In 1860 Lincoln was elected President of the USA. In 1861 seven states left the Union and elected their own President, Jefferson Davis. The Confederacy was formed.
Lincoln was strongly against slavery and even more strongly against the break-up of the Union. In April 1861 the American Civil War between the North and the South began.
At first the war went badly for the North. The Southerners headed by General Robert Lee and Colonel7 Jackson won some brilliant victories. But Lincoln did not lose courage8. On April, 9, 1865 General Lee surrendered9. The Civil War was over. Lincoln tried to convince10 former enemies that they should live in peace.
On April, 14, 1865 the President and his wife visited a theatre in Washington. During the performance Lincoln was shot by an actor who supported the Confederacy. The name of the assassin11 was John Booth. Abraham Lincoln died next morning.
People admire Lincoln for political moderation12. They admire him because he tried to preserve the nation. He is a symbol of American democracy.
следующая страница >>