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Содержание вступительного экзамена в аспирантуру


по иностранному языку
1. Изучающее чтение оригинального текста по специальности и перевод на русский язык со словарем.

Объем 1700 печатных знаков. Время на подготовку - 45 мин.

2.Беглое чтение оригинального газетного текста без словаря и передача основного содержания на русском языке в устной форме.

Объем 1500 печатных знаков. Время на подготовку – 10 мин.

3.Беседа на иностранном языке об опыте научно-исследовательской работы поступающего в аспирантуру.

Материалы для подготовки к экзамену:

1. Тексты по специальности:

учебники, монографии по теме диссертационного исследования, изданные в стране изучаемого языка.

2. Газетные тексты – оригинальные газеты

на английском языке – например, The Times online, сайт bbcnews.com, журналы “The Economist”, “Newsweek”;

на немецком языке - deutsche welle.com; журналы Maschinenbautechnik, Manager-Magazin, Markt, Handelsblatt, Wirtschaftswoche, Die Zeit.

на французском языке - www.edu.fr.com, газеты и журналы „Observateur“, „Entreprise“ , « Le Figaro économie », « La Tribune », «Libération »  

3. Поступающий в аспирантуру должен уметь вести беседу на иностранном языке о своем опыте научно-исследовательской работы: участие в научных (студенческих) конференциях; участие в работе кружков, секций, клубов; участие в проектах, грантах; написание и публикация научных статей, тезисов. Необходимо подготовить сообщение о выпускной (дипломной) работе на предыдущем этапе обучения, объяснить свое желание обучаться в аспирантуре.
Образцы экзаменационных заданий, 2010 год

I. Using a dictionary prepare a written translation of the text (время выполнения 45 минут)

Investment Composition and Productivity

With Heterogeneous Entrepreneurs and Financiers

Rusim Burak Uras

I.I. Introduction

Firm level productivity is an important determinant of the aggregate economic performance as it has been pointed out by Prescott (1999), Parente and Prescott (1999), Lagos (2006), and Restuccia and Rogerson (2008). Ability to invest with longer investment horizons is expected to affect the firm level performance (Demirguc and Maksimovic,1999) and productivity while incentives to invest long term is closely related with the availability of aggregate financial liquidity. In this essay, I study a stylized economic environment to analyze the joint determination of liquidity and investment horizon choice in a dynamic general equilibrium setting.

Most small firms, unlike their larger counterparts, cannot diversify production risk. One of the main reasons for this diversification problem is the inability to operate multiple investment projects simultaneously. Due to this circumstance, given the relative cost of different financial methods, a small firm might have to make a discrete project decision at a given point in time. When aggregate liquidity is constrained, this discrete choice problem can have pronounced aggregate implications if firm level project choice set contains investment opportunities which are heterogeneous in terms of their return horizon. The theory developed in this essay shows that the distribution of economy-wide productivity level is important for the availability of aggregate financial liquidity and individual investment horizon decisions.

I develop an overlapping generations model which allows for entrepreneurial and financier heterogeneity. In the model, entrepreneurs do not own any wealth to start with and need to borrow from “financiers”, who hold the loanable funds of the economy. Financiers can lend their funds as short term, long term, or as any combination of both. Financiers face an uninsurable liquidity risk at the beginning of their lifetime, which creates a wedge between the price of long term loanable funds and short term loanable funds becoming important for entrepreneurial investment horizon determination as well as for firm level and aggregate productivity.

II. Scan and translate the text (Время подготовки – 10 минуты)

Achieving Market Integration

Scott McCleskey

Markets evolve; so, too, must the regulation of markets. The days are past when each country was an insulated and self-contained market, where investors, traders and companies all operated within the isolated confines of a single national exchange. The day of the insulated national market has, in short, gone the way of the trading pit.

The development of cross-border trading has long been recognized as an essential element in the integration of regional or even global capital markets. Within the European Union, it has been recognized as a necessary step towards the free movement of capital, one of the fundamental goals set forth by the founding Treaty of Rome a half-century ago. Yet, in many cases, market integration has been inhibited by a "regulatory lag", as rules and regulations fail to keep pace with the evolution of the markets. As the United Nations put it, "Financial regulation is constantly struggling to keep up with financial innovation, and in this struggle it is not always successful".

The application of "best execution" policies is· a prime example of this phenomenon.

Originally formulated in the days of single national markets, regulation on the subject has not kept pace with current technology or business practice. Regulators are, in a sense, fighting the last war.
Примерные
вопросы для беседы

III.
Prepare to answer the examiners’ questions about your background, work and research, your plans for the future:


  1. Could you describe your educational background: what institution of higher education did you graduate from? When was it?

  2. Could you describe your work experience?

  3. Did you do research when you were a student?
  4. What factors influenced your decision to go on with ( or: take up) research?


  5. Why did you choose the Orenburg State Institute of Management for your post-graduate study?

  6. In what field are you planning to work (finance, stock market, institutional economics,etc.)

  7. Have you decided what the topic of your research might be? What made you choose this topic?

  8. Have you published any articles on the topic yet?

  9. Is the prospective research connected with your job? Do you think it will affect your professional development?

Beantworten Sie bitte die folgenden Fragen:

1. Welches Institut haben Sie absolviert? Wann war das?

2. Welche Praxiserfahrung haben Sie gesammelt?

3. Haben Sie Forschungen gemacht, als Sie Student(in) waren?

4. Welche Faktoren beeinflussten Ihre Entscheidung diese Forschung zu machen?

5. Warum haben Sie das Orenburger Staatliche Institut für Management für die Aspirantur gewählt?

6. In welchem Bereich möchten Sie arbeiten?

7. Haben Sie entschieden, wie der Titel Ihrer Forschung sein wird? Warum haben Sie dieses Thema gewählt?

8. Haben Sie schon irgendwelche Beiträge zu diesem Thema veröffentlicht?

9. Ist Ihre zukünftige Forschung mit Ihrem Beruf verbunden? Wird Sie es auf Ihre weitere Karriere Einfluß ausüben?
Répondez s'il vous plaît , à quelques questions

1.Quel institut vous avez terminé et quand?

2. Décrivez , s'il vous plaît, votre expériencé professionnelle.

3. Avez –vous fait des recherches étant étudiant(e)?

4.Quelles circonsrances ont influencé sur votre décision de faire des recherhes?

5. Pourquoi vous avez choisi l'institut d'Etat de management pour faire le cycle d'études préparant à la soutenance de la thèse de candidat?

6.Quelle branche d'activité choisirez-vous pour votre travai?

7. Avez-vous déjà choisi le thème de votre thèse? Pourquoi avez-vous choisi ce sujet?


8. Avez-vous déjà publié quelques articles scientifiques sur vos recherches?

9.Le sujet de votre thèse est lié avec votre travail? Comment pensez-vous ce thèse vous aidera dans votre carrière?